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Full text of "The doctrine of grace, or, The office and operations of the Holy Spirit vindicated from the insults of infidelity, and the abuses of fanaticism : with some thoughts (humbly offered to the consideration of the established clergy) regarding the right method of defending religion against the attacks of either party ..."

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5fr **?/U& A t/L 







O R, T H E 

Office and Operations 

O F T H E 


Vindicated from 

The Iniults of Infidelity, 


The Abufes of Fan at icism: 

With fome Thoughts 

(humbly offered to the confideration of the 



The right method of defending Religion 
l g £ 

againft the attacks of either Party. 


B Y 



L N D N : 

Printed for A.Millar, and J. and R. Ton son, 
in the Strand. MDCCLXIII. 


[ Hi J 


To the First Edition. 

\\7HILE I was compofing thefe 
* * meets to vindicate the honour of 
Religion, it was given out that I was 
writing in defence of a late Minifler of 

I have a Matter above, and I have 
one below ; I mean, God and the 
King. To them my fer vices are 

The moft facred of all private ties 
are Friendjlip and Gratitude. The 
duties arifing from thefe, tho' not alto- 
gether fo extenfive as the other, are 
iubfervient only to them. 

-With refpcdl to the great Miniittr 
here underftood, I lis vindication, had 

A 2 h e 


he wanted any, could come, with 
proper dignity, only from himfelf. 
And He, tho' for the firft time, would 
be here but a Copier: I mean, of the 
example of that Firft of Romans * ; 
who being calumniated before the 
People by one Naevius, an obfeure 
Plebeian, when- he came to make his 
Defence, which happened to be on 
the anniverfary of the battle of Zama, 
addreffed the Aflembly in this man- 
ner : " It was on this day, Romans, 
<c that I fubdued your mighty Rival 
c * for Empire, the Carthaginian. Ill 
lt would it become the friends of 
<c Rome to wafte fuch a day in 
* c wrangling and contention. We 
<f fliould now be returning thanks to 
<c the immortal Gods for the fignal 
" protection they afforded us in that 
<c glorious Conflict. Let us leave 
" then this Fellow with himfelf, and 
<c afcend together to the Capitol, to 
" offer tojupiter the Deliverer ; Who, 
" on all occafions as well as this, 

* Scipio Africanus ; who reitored his Country by 
carrying the War from Rome to Carthage. 

" hath, 












hath, from my early youth, vouch- 
fafed to beftow upon me the grow- 
ing power and the conftant difpo- 
fition to iupport the honour of my 
Country. And let no God, aufpi- 
cious to Rome, he left uninvoked, 
that the State in its diftreffes, 
may never want fuch Servants as 
I have ftill endeavoured to approve 
myfelf/' When he had faid this, 
he ftept from the Roftrum and left 
the Forum empty ; all the People 
following him to the Capitol. 

That the People followed him is not 
furely the marvellous part of the ftory. 
The thing to be admired is, that a 
Statefman mould lead the People to 

This indeed is the laft fervice a 
Patriot- Minifter can render to his 
Country. And I am well perfuaded 
(fo exactly does the example fit the 
occafion) that our illuflrious Modern 
would have deemed it the crown of 
his labours to have animated his Fel- 

A 3 low- 


low-Citizens with a fpirit of true piety 
towards God, as fuccefsfully as he in- 
flamed them with a fpirit of Zeal 
and Fortitude for the King and 



[ vii ] 


THE Contempt of Religion ibon fol- 
lowed the Abuse -, and both of 
them have exifted almoft ever fince the 
firft inftitution of the thing itfelf. For, 
that corruption of heart, whole diforder, 
Religion was ordained to cure, has been 
ever ftruggling againfl its Remedy. 

I. In the days of Solomon, when Wif- 
dom was at its height, Folly, as we learn 
from many pafiages in the writings of that 
Sacred Sage, kept equal paces with it. 
Hence it is that, after he has given many 
lively paintings of the deformed features 
of irreligion and bigotry, he fubjoins di- 
rections to the fober Advocate of Piety 
and Virtue how ben: to reprefs their info- 
lence and vanity. Answer not a Fool 
(fays he) according to his Folly, left thou 
alfo be like unto him. Answer a Fool ac- 
cording to his Folly, left he be wife in his 
own conceit *. 

* t'rov. xx vi. ver. 4, 5. 

A 4- Short, 

viii P RE F A C E. 

Short, ifolated Sentences were the mode 
in which Ancient wifdom delighted to 
convey its precepts for the regulation of 
human conduct. But when this natural 
method had loft the grace of novelty, and 
a growing refinement had new-coioured 
the candid fimplicity of ancient manners, 
thefe inftructive Sages found a neceflity of 
giving to their moral maxims the feafon- 
ing and poignancy of Paradoxes. In thefe 
lively and uieful fports of fancy, the Son 
ef David, we are told, moft excelled. 
We find them to abound in the writings 
which bear his name ; and we meet with 
frequent allufions to them in all the, parts 
of iacred Writ, under the names of Ri ti- 
dies > Parables, and Dark-fayings. - 

Nov/ of all the examples of this fpecies 
of inftruction, there is none more illuf- 
trious, or fuller of moral Wifdom, than 
the Paradox juft now quoted •, or which, 
in the happinefs of the expreffion, has fo 
artfully conveyed the Key for opening 
the treafures of it. But as a dark conceit 
and a dull one have a great proximity in 
modern wit •, and a nice difference is not 
diftinguifhed from a contradiction in mo- 
dern reafoning ; this Paradox of the Sage 
has been miftaken by his Critics for an 
abfurdity of fome of his Tranfcribers, 



who forgot the negative in the latter 
member of the Sentence : And io, to he 
fet right at an eafier expence than unfold- 
ing dark [entences of old\ that is to fay, 
by exchanging them for clearer ', of a mo- 
dern date : which 'Time can make ancient 
readings ; and which a careful collation 
of its blunders may hereafter make the 


II. But they who chufe to receive An- 
tiquity in its antique Garb, will, perhaps, 
venture with me to try, if the apparent 
contradiction in the received Text cannot 
be fairly unriddled without any other aid 
than of the words themfelves, in which 
the dark faying is conveyed. 

Had the Folly of thefe Fools been only 
of one condition or denomination, then 
the advice to anfwer, and not to anfwer ^ 
had been repugnant to itfelf. But as their 
Folly was of various kinds, in fome of 
which, to anfwer might offend the dig- 
nity, and in others,.?/*?/ to anfwer might 
hurt the interefts of Truth •, To anfwer; 
and not to anfwer ', is a confiflent, and 
may, for ought thefe Critics know, be a 
very wife direction. 

. . •* 

A 5 Had 


Had the Advice been given fimply and 
without circumftance, to anfwer the Fool, 
and not to anfwer him, a Critic, who had 
a reverence for the Text, would fatisfy 
himfelf in fuppofing, that the different 
directions referred to the doing a thing in 
and out of jeafon. But when, to the ge- 
neral advice about anfwering, this circum- 
ftance is added, — according to his folly, 
that interpretation is excluded •, and a 
difficulty indeed arifes •, a difficulty, which 
has made thofe who have no reverence 
for the Text, to accufe it of abfurdity 
and contradiction. 

But now, to each Direction, reafons 
are fubjoined, Why a Fool Jhould, and 
why he floould not, be anfwered: reafons, 
which, when fet together and compared, 
are, at firfl fight, fuflicient to make the 
Critic fufpect, that all the contradiction 
lies in his own incumbered ideas. 

i. The reafon given, why a Foolfhculd 
not be anfwered according to his folly, is, left 
he [the Anfwerer] be like unto him : 

2. The reafon given, why he jkould be 
anfwered according to his folly, is, left he 
[the Foci] be wife in his own conceit. 



The caufe affigned, of forbidding to an- - 
fiver, therefore, plainly infinuates, that 
the Defender of Religion mould not imi- 
tate the Infulterof it in his modes of difpu- 
tation -, which may be comprifed infophif- 
try, buffo onry, and fcurrility. For what - 
could fo much liken the Anfwerer to his ; 
idiot- Adverfary, as the putting on his 
Fool's-coat in order to captivate and con- - 
found the Rabble ? . 

The caufe affigned, of directing to an-  
fiver, as plainly intimates, that the. Sage 
mould addrefs himfelf to confute the Fool 
upon the Fool's own falfe Principles,, by 
fhewing that they lead to Conclufions very 
wide from the impieties he would deduce 
from them. . And if any thing will prevent 
the Fool from being wife in bis own conceit ^ , 
it muft be the difhonour and the ridicule 
of having his own Principles turned againft : 
him -, while they are Ihewn to make for . 
the very contrary purpofe to that y .for ." 
which he had employed them. .. 

The fupreme wifdom conveyed in : . tb 
two precepts of this unravelled  Paradox ? 
will be belt underftood byexplaining the 
advantages arifing from the obfervance. of 
each of them. 

A 6 TIL 


III. We are not to anfwer a fool according 

to his folly , left we alfo be like unto him — 

' This is the reafon given ; and a good one 

it is •, fufficient to make any fober man 

• decline a Combat, where even Victory 
would bring diflionour with it. Now, if 
our anfwer be of fuch a nature that we 

• alfo (tho' with contrary intentions) do 
injury to Truth, we become like unto him 
in the effential part of his Character. 
And ilirely Truth is never more grofly 
abufed, nor its Advocates more difho- 
noured, than when they employ the fbolifh 
arts of Sopbtftry, Buffo onry, arid Scurrility 
in its defence. M 

i. To uie fallacious and inconclufive 
arguments in fupport of Truth, is doing 
it infinite difcredit. The practice tends 
to make men fufpect that the queftioned 
Truth is indeed an impofture, w 
Nina's fupport in the common tri^Js 
Impoftors : The lead unfavourable irfc 
ference will be, that the Truth is defended 
not for its own fake, but for the fake | 
the Defender : This will make the feri 
Enquirer lefs attentive to the iffue, 
more jealous of the good faith of the 
vocate ; which cannot but lefien our r 
rence to the one, and increafe unfavbu 
able prejudices towards the other. It 




tends to reduce the two Parties of Wifdom 
and Folly to a level •, when they (land on 
the fame barren and deceitful Ground. 
It tends to confound the difrjnction be- 
tween true and falfe, and to make all ter- 
minate in that moil malignant fpecies of 
folly, Pyrronic doubt and uncertainty. 

2. To employ Buffoonry in this fervice, 
is to violate the Majefty of Truth, which 
can inforce its influence amongft men no 
longer than while its Sanctity of Character 
is kept fafe from infult. 

Buffoonry deprives Truth of the only 
thing me wants, in order to come off vic- 
torious ; I mean, a fair bearing. To exa- 
mine ^ Men mud be ferious \ and to judge, 
they muft be attentive to the argument. 
Buffoonry gives a levity to the mind, 
which makes it feek entertainment rather 
than inftruetion, in all that is offered 
to its infpeclion. But let this poor talent 
be taken at. its utmoft worth, the ufe of it 
will ftill raife a fufpicion, .that the Advocate 
has his caufe little at heart, while, in the 
^very heat of an important controverfy, he 
tan allow himfelf to be amufed and di- 
verted by the levity of falfe wit-, fince, in 
afcatters that are underftyod to concern us 
jpoft, we are wont to appear, as well as to 




be, moft in earneft : and this fcandal given 
by the Advocate, will always do prejudice 
to the Caufe. 

3. Again, perfonal abufe, that favourite 
colour which glares moll in the Fool's Rhe- 
toric, is carefully to be avoided. For 
nothing can fo afiimilate the Anlwerer to 
the Fool he is confuting as a want of Cha- 
rity, which this mode of defence fo openly 
betrays. To Charity, the Fool makes no 
pretenfions. His very attempt is an 
avowed violation of it. He would deprive 
the world of what he himfelf confefles to 
be moft ufeful to Society, and moft pleai- 
ing to the natural fentiments of Man - 9 
that is to fay, Religion. He would break 
down this barrier againft Evil, he would 
rob us of this confolation of Humanity; 
and in fuch a Service he follows but his 
nature and his office, when he vilifies and 
calumniates all who fet themfelves to op- 
pofe his impious projects. But the end of 
the Commandment is Charity. 

Thefe are the various modes of anfwer- 
ing which are to be avoided, left the Ad- 
vocate of Religion become like the im- 
pious Caviller whom he addreffes himfelr 
to confute. 



IV. But then, left the Fool Jhould be wife 
in his own conceit, we are, at the fame 
time, bid, to give him an anfwer. But 
how can this be done, in the manner here 
directed, namely, according to his folly, 
and yet the Anfwerer not become like 
unto him, but, on the contrary, be able to 
produce the effect here intimated, the 
cure of the Fool's vain conceit of his fu- 
perior Wifdom, is a difficulty indeed ; a 
difficulty worthy the Advocate of truth 
to undertake : and which a Matter of his 
Subject may hope to overcome, in con- 
triving to confute the Fool on his own 
falfe Principles, by fhewing that they lead 
to a Conciufion very oppofite to thofe free 
Confequences he has laboured to deduce 
from them. And if any thing will allay 
the Fool's vain conceit of himfelf, it mult 
be the fenfe of fuch a difhonour. For 
what can be more fhameful. than to have 
his own Principles fhewn to be destructive 
of his own Conclufions ? What more 
mortifying, than to have thofe Principles, 
in whofe invention he fo much gloried, or 
in whofe ufe he fo much confided, fairly 
turned, by all the rules of good Logic, to 
his own confufion ? Nor is the Partifan of 
faliehood more humbled than the Caufe of 
truth advanced, by thus anfwering a Fool 
according to his folly. For that Victory 


xvi P R E F A C E.- 

where the Adverfary is thus made to con- 
tribute to his own overthrow is, in com- 
mon eftimation, always held to be mod 
compleat : that Syftem being naturally 
deemed contemptible, whole moft plaufi- 
ble iupport draws after it the ruin of what 
it was raifed to uphold. 

And thus, as the Wife man directs, is 
this forward Fool to be treated \ whether 
it be by filence or confutation, 

V. That, in general, his folly is to be 
repreffed, according to the chelates of true 
Wifdom, the nature of the thing fufficient- 
ly informs us: There was no need of a 
particular direction to inforce the expe- 
diency and neceftity of fuch a conduct. 
But then, beiides, it may fometimes hap- 
pen, that the interefts of Truth require 
his being anfwered even according to his 
folly : And, as our duty here is very liable 
to abufe y it was expedient to obviate the 
danger. This, we may obferve, the fa- 
cred Writer hath done -, and with much 
art and elegance of addrefs. 

It may indeed be faid, Why this prac- 
tifed obliquity in defence of Truth ? Is not 
the purity of her nature rather defiled, 
than her real interefts advanced by this 

indirection ? 

PREFACE. xvii 

indirection? And does not Wifdom feetn 
to tell us, that it becomes her dignity to 
reprefs Folly by thole arms only which 
Wifdom herfelf hath edged and tempered; 
that Truth, by the information of her 
own light, points out the fhraight road to 
her abode ; and forbids us to riggle into 
her facred prefence thro' by-paths, and 
the cloudy Medium of falfhood? 

But thev who talk thus do not fuffi- 
ciently reflect on the condition of our 
weak and purblind Nature, which can ill 
bear the bright and unmaded light of 
Truth. On which account, it is fo con- 
trived, in the beautiful Order of things, 
*hat Folly t by thus adminiftering to her 
own defeat, mould bring us back again 
into the ways of Wifdom, from which fhc 
hath feduced us. 

The Redeemer of Mankind, in con- 
defcenfion to the infirmities of thofe he 
came to fave, hath taken this very advan- 
tage of that eftablifhed Order : For, more 
effectually to filence thofe Fools who ques- 
tioned his Miffion and his Office, he an- 
fwers them according to their folly ♦, that is, 
he demonstrates to them, on their own 
• erroneous ideas of the nature and end of 
the Law, (formed on rabbinical tradi- 

xviii PREFACE. 

tions and the reveries of Greek Philofo- 
phers) he demonstrates to them, I fay,, 
the truth and reafonablenefs of the Gos- 
pel. The pure and unabated fplendor 
of Truth, ufliered in by Wifdom, would 
have only added to their judicial- blind- 
nefs: for to bear it undazzled, they had 
need of the prefence of that Spirit of 
Truth, which was not yet come, but 
only promifed to be fent. Indeed, when 
this Sacred Guide was come, and while 
he continued in an extraordinary manner, 
to enlighten the understandings of the 
Faithful, there was no occafion for this 
inforced miniftry of Folly, to contribute to 
her own deftrucr.ion. And therefore the 
firft Propagators of the Gofpel proceeded 
more directly to the eftablifhment of the 
Truth, and on the folid principles of Wif- 
dom only. Yet now again, in die ordinary 
communications of Grace, this direction 
of the Wife man will be as ufeful as ever, 
to the interefts of Virtue and Religion, 
Answer a Fool according to his 
folly, lest he be wise. in his own 


C O N- 

[ xix ] 


B O O K I. 

A Defence of the CEconomy of Grace, 
againjl the cauls 0/ Unbelievers. 
In which the Holy Spiri r is confidered in 
his office of In* light en er. 

C H A P. I. Introduction^ containing a 
fummary account of the Occonomy of Grace. 

p. 1—3 

CHAP. II. The defcwt of the Holy 
Ghofl, in the gift of tongues at Pentecofi* 
explained and vindicated. p. 3 — -si 

CHAP. III. The fnbj-etl continued. - 

p. 11 — 16 

CHAP. IV. m An account of the other 
extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit. 

p. 16 — 2 1 

C H A P. V. The principal of thefe gifts, 
the Inspiration of Scripture, more 
particularly enlarged upon. p. 2 2—2 8 

CHAP. VI. The fuperfiitious notion of 
organic inipiration expofed. p. 29 — 32 



CHAP. VII. The true notion of Scrip- 
ture- inibiration delivered, explained, and 
Supported. p. 33—37 

CHAP. VIII. The objection of Doilcr 
Middle ton to the infpiration of Scripture, 
from the barbarity of jlile, anfwered, by 
Shewing that, in an infpired, language, it 
was natural to expecl the very properties 
cbjecled to in the language of Scripture. 

P- 37—49 

CHAP. IX. Of the nature of human 
Eloquence : and why the ufe of any par- 
ticular fpecies of it had been improper in 
a Writing defiined for the injirucHon of 
Mankind, p. 49 — 60 

CHAP. X. The fubjefl continued, in a 
detection of the fallacy of a famed com- 
parifon brought by Lord Shaftfbury to 
difcredit Scripture infpiration. p. 60^64 


/f Defence of the CEcoNor*fy of Grace 
^ cgainft the ilufions 0/ Fanatics : In 
which the Holy Spirit is confidered in his 
office of Comforter. 

CHAP. J. The extraordinary effecls 
of fupporting- Grace amongjl the Primi- 
tive Chriftians, cppofed to the pretences of 
it amongjl modern Fanatics. p. 65 — 70 



CHAP. II. An explanation of i Cor. 
xiii. 8. jhewing) from the exprefs declara- 
tion of the /jpojlle, that the extraordinary 
or miraculous operations of the Holy 
Spirit were to ceafe with the firit ^ges 
— The nfe of this Scripture truth agaivji 
Superftition and Fanatic* fm. p. 70 — 80 

CHAP, III. The fitnfs of the Oecono- 
my, in thus withdrawing the miraculous 
powers of Grace from the Church and its 
Members. — The bold pre tenfions of modern 
Salaries to Juch powers propofed to be 
enquired into, in an examination of the 
. Principles and Practice of the famed Leader 
of the Methodifts, Mr. John Wesley. 

p. 81 — 87 

CHAP. IV. The evangelic ftate of 
things when Mr. J. Wejleyfirfi entered on 
his Miffion, as it is defcribed at large by 
himfelf. p. 88 — 95 

CHAP. V. Mr. J. IVeflefs claim to 

miraculous Powers* as conferred upen, and 

. exercifed by, the Saints of old, afferted, and 

infifted on by himfelf •, in a detailed account 

of his Miffion, here given in his own words. 

p. 96 — 1 10 

CHAP. VI. The qualities of celeftial 

Wifdom, which is St. James'j fovereign 
fecurity impofture^ applied as a Tefi, 
for the trial of the Spirits, according to 



the dire 51 ion of St. Paul. — Previous to 
all its 'peculiar qualities is its being com- 
municable or intelligible ; — tins Jbewn 
to be wanting in the Wifdom, which the 
Behmenists pretend to have fetched 
down from Heaven. p. iio — 112 

CHAP. VII. Purity, tbefirji and fun- 
damental quality in heavenly wifdom, 
floewn to be wanting in Moravianifm, 
Behmenifm, and Methodifrn. — The prac- 
tical impurities of the firfi juft touched 
upon, and the fpirllual impurities of the 
two latter laid open and expo fed. 

p. 112 — 122 

C H A P. VIII. Takes occaficn from the 
nature of the apoftolic marks tojhew that 
the mif chiefs which attend the propagating 
of Religio:: in a wrong manner, are often 
greater than when only the matter 
taught is erroneous. p. 122 — 127 

C H A P. IX. Begins with Mr. JVeflefs ' 
peaceable temper — JJoewn in his aver/ion 
to the virtue of Prudence, and his eager 
invitation of Perfecution. p. 127 — 141 

CHAP. X. His gentlenefs and eafe to 
be intreated /hewn in his affetled rigidiiy 
of manners, and in his encaujiic Por- 
traitures of his Adversaries. 

p. 141— .145 


CONTENTS. xxiii 

C H A P. XL His Mercy and Good- 
fruits. The firft feen in the language he 
bcflows on the whole body of his oppofrs? 
and the mortal vengeance he infliols on 
their Principals : The latter feen in the 
abundant harveft of fpiritual Lunatics. 

p. 146— .-55 

CHAP. XII. His freedom from parti- 
ality and hypocrify. The nature of 

Fanaticism, its natural union with 
Fraud ; and the ufe and neceffity of this 
conjunclionto fecure itsfuccefs. — Partiality 
is feen in difpenfing unequal meafure 9 and 
Hypocrify in attempting to cover that une- 
qual meafure by falfe colours and prevarica- 
 lion. — Mr. Weflefs condutl as to both 
thefe particulars. The conclufion to be 
drawn from the whole. p. 1 5 6 — 1 8 8 



Ontains directions for the right Method 
of defending Religion both againft Unbe- 
lievers and Fanatics j addrejfed to the Efta- 
blifhed Clergy. 

CHAP. I. Recommends the Law of 
Toleration to their good opinion? and 
warm fupport.—* Advantages of it to Re- 
ligion, and the Church. — The injuflice 
and mifchiefs of the infringement and Abufe 



of it. — Obfervations on the nature cf 
Schifm. p. 189 — 204. 

CHAP. II. Dinftions to the Eftablifhed 

Clergy for the rational and honeft defence 
of the Cbriftian Religion againft Free- 
thinkers and Fanatics. — Not to depreciate 
in a contrary extreme human reason, 
becaufe Freethinkers have extravagantly 
extolled it.—- The hurtful advantages which 
cur Adverfaries have taken of this folly 
inftanced in the Author of a book called 
Revelation not founded on Argument. 
— Nor becaufe Fanatics ', fitch as Wefley 
and Law, have depreciated natural 
Religion, to run into the oppofite ex- 
treme of extravagantly extolling it. 

p. 204 — 229 

CHAP. III. An inftance of th's laft 
folly. — An hiftorical deduction of the caufes 
of it, and the mi f chiefs attending it. — 
The Advantages to Religion in freferving 
a mean, efpecially in the capital article 
cf our Faith, the dotlrine 0/ Redemp- 
tion, p. 229—246 

[ I ] 



O N T H E 

Office and Operations 

O F T H E 


C H A P. I. 

TH E blefled Jefus came into the world 
on the part of God, to declare par- 
don and falvation to the forfeited pofte- 
rity of Adam. He teftified the truth of his 
Million by amazing miracles, and fealed man's 
Redemption, in his Blood, by the more amazing. 
Sacrifice of himfelf upon the crofs. 

But as the Redemption, fo procured, could 
only operate on each Individual, under certain 
conditions of Faith and Obedience, very re- 
pugnant to our corrupt nature, the blefTed Re- 

B deemer, 

5t On the Office and Operations B. I. 

deemer, on leaving the world, promifed to his 
followers his intercemon with the Father, to 
fend amoncfr. them another divine Perfon on 
the part of Man, namely the Holy 
Ghost, called the Spirit of Truth , and the 
Comforter ; who, agreably to the import of thefe 
attributes, fhould co-operate with Man in eftab- 
lifhing his Faith, and in perfecting his Obe- 
dience ; or, in other k words, fhould fanclify 
him to Redemption, 

This is a fuccinct account of the CEconomy 
of Grace ; entirely confonant to our moft ap- 
proved conceptions of the Divine nature and 
of the human condition. For if Man was to be 
relnftated in a free-gift, which had been juft- 
ly forfeited, we cannot but confefs, that as, on 
the one hand, the reftoration might be made on 
what conditions beft pleafed the Giver ; fo, on 
the other, that God would gracioufly provide 
that it fhould not be made in vain. 

An Atonement, therefore, for the offended 
Majefty of the Father, was firft to be pro- 
cured ; and this was the work of the Son : And 
then, a remedy was to be provided for that help- 
lefs condition of Man, which hindered the 
Atonement from producing its effect ; and this 
was the office of the Holy Ghost : So that 
both were joint-workers in the great bufinefs of 
reconciling (Sod to man. 

Wha- at prefent I propofe to confider is, the 
Office and Operations of the Holy Spirit^ as they 
are delivered to us ill facred Scripture. 

* His 

C. II. t/^ Holy Spirit. 5 

His office in general is, as hath been obferved, 
to eftablifh our Faith, and to perfect, our Obe- 
dience: both of which he doth by enlighten- 
ing the Understanding, and by rectify- 
ing the Will. All this is neceiTarily collected 
from the words of Jefus, which contain this 
important Promise. / will pray the Father^ 
(fays he) and he /hall give you another Coivifor- 
TER, that he ?nay abide with you for ever ; even 

the Spirit of Truth He dwell eth with 

you, and Jhall be in you which is the Holy" 

Ghost, whom the Father jhall fend in my name* 
He Jhall teach you all Things (i). 

By teaching us all things under the joint cha- 
racters of the Spirit of Truth and of the Com- 
forter , we are neceiTarily to understand all things 
which concern Faith and Obedience. 

Thefe tw r o diflincl: branches of his ofnee I 
(hall confider in their order. 


FIRST of all, let us obferve the method 
employed by divine wifdom in manifesting 
the operations of the Holy Ghost, as the 
Spirit and Guide of Truth (2). 

The firfl: extraordinary atr.efrat.ion of his De- 
fcent was at the day of Pentecofr, in the Gift 
of Tongues. 

(1) John xiv. 16, ci? feq. (2) John xvi. i 3 . 

B 2 Befides 

4 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

Befides the great and almoft indifpenfable ufe 
of this endowment on the firft Difciples of Chrift, 
who were to convey the glad tidings of the Gof- 
pel throughout the whole Earth ; the elegance 
and propriety in the choice of this miracle, to 
atteft the real defcent of that Spirit who was to 
teach us all things, can never be plough admired : 
for Words being the human vehicle of our 
Knowlege, this Gift was the fitteft precurfor 
of the Spirit of Truth, 

But this firft opening fcene of wonders, which 
was to prepare and influence all their fubfequent 
labours, a late eminent writer would, from a 
Sign, reduce to a Shadow - 9 in which he feems 
to think, Fancy fet itfelf on work, to produce 
a Prodigy. " The Gift of Tongues upon the 
4i day of Pentecoft (fays the learned Perfon) 
" was not la/ling, but injlantancous and tranfitory \ 
* c not beftowed upon them for the conftant 
** work of the miniftr.y, but as an occafional Sign 
" only, that the perfon endowed with it was a 
<; choien minifter of the gofpel : which Sign, 
" as foon as it had ferved that particular pur- 
" pofe, feems to have ceafed, and totally to 
" have vanifhed (3).'* 

Let us examine now, the grounds of this new 
inteipretation, fo apparently derogatory to the 
operation of the Holy Spirit. 

The learned writer proceeds in order ; firft, 
to reduce the Type or vifible Sign of the Gift, 

(3) Dr. Wdd'etons EfTay on the Gift of Tongues, 
Vol. II. of his Works, p. 79. 


C. II. e/^HoLY Spirit. 5 

the fiery Tongues : for having declared the 
Gift itfelf to be inftantaneous and tranfitory, he 
has, very confiftently, endeavoured to fhew that 
the Sign of it was merely fanciful. He ex- 
plains it to be no more than a fudden fiafh of 
lightening, " which, he fays, like all other 
" Phenomena of that fort, no fooner appeared, 
" than vanifhed (4)." 

His reafon for this opinion is, " becaufe when 
" the Difciples fpoke in ftrange tongues to the 
44 Multitude, the conclufion they drew from 
M that circumftance feems to fliew, that the 
«« celeftial Fire did not, at that time, fit upon 
" their Heads (5)." 


But the learned Perfon has omitted to bring 
this other circumftance into his account ; that 
when the cloven Tongues appeared upon each of 
them, they were affernbled together in a private 
room, fequeftered and apart : and that it was 
not till the thing was ncijed ahead, and the 
Multitude come together, to inquire into the truth 
of it, that the Apoilles fpoke with tongues as tht 
Spirit gave them utterance. Now between this 
vifible Defcent of the Holy Spirit, and their 
fpeaking to the Multitude, a confiderable time 
muft have intervened ; fufficient to convince 
the Apoftles, from the fteady duration of the 
appearance, that it was not natural but mira-* 
culous. And this the orig-inal words well ex- 
prefs : eWOio-e re i$ ha. exzqov uvtwv^ properly 
rendered by the Phrafe of Sitting upon each of 
them: Words fo inconfiftent with a momentary 

(4) P. 81. (5) P. 82. 

B 3 appearance, 

6 On the Office and Operations B. L 

appearance, that it would be trifling with com- 
mon fenfe to deduce fuch an interpretation from 
oblique circumftances and collateral reafoning. 
It is true the learned Writer concedes, even 
from the Sign's being only a fudden Flajh, which 
vani fried ahnojl as foon as it appeared ', that " it 
" indicated fomething miraculous and fuper- 
u natui I'(6)." But I am afraid, that thofe 
who are the readieft to embrace his Phvfiolo2:v, 
will not be the firft to admire his Theology ; 
efpecially as it is fo gratuitously deduced. It may 
therefore not be improper to cotyfider the evan- 
gelical account of this vifible pefcent, with a 
little more exaclnefs. In thjs place (we fee) 
the fiery Tongues are faid, to fit' upon each of them : 
and other places of Scripture, which mention 
the like defcent of the Holy Spirit in vifible 
Form, defcribe it in fuch terms as denote a 
very different appearance from a fudden Flajh of 
Lightening. St. Matthew tells us, that the Spirit 
of God deficended like a Dove, core) urt^t^oiv ; that 
is, with a Dove-like motion ; as birds, when 
about to fettle upon any thing, firft hover over 
it with quivering wings : It then lighted upon 
fefus, ic^outvcv £7T cc'otov. So, in the place in 
queftion, the fame Spirit is faid to defcend un- 
der the appearance of cloven Tongues, like as of 
Fire, coo-e) wvp6$. In the former inftance, only 
the motion of the defcent is defcribed : in this, 
both the moticn, figure, and colour. And the 
term of cloven Tongues, which the facred Hif- 
torian employs to defcribe the motion, and 
which the learned writer takes up, to prove his 
hypothecs of a momentary exiftence of the 

(6) P. 82v 


C. II. cf the Holy Spirit. 7 

phenomenon, proves it, in truth, to be of Tome 
continuance. " We cannot (lays- he) think it 
S itrange that fire flaming from Heaven, a,nd 
c fuddenly vanifning, mould yield fome re- 
' femblancc of Tongues to the eyes of the Mul- 
< titude > for this is no more than what is 

* natural, ami what we may obferve, in fome 
4 meafurc, from every flame that Raines from 
c the clouds, and breaks itfelf, of courfe, in a 

* number of fmall pointed particles not remote 
fci from that ftiape (7)." 

To this, let us, in the firft place, obferve, 
that the thing (ben, e*m vrvgos, on the heads of 
the Apoftles, was no more an elementary fire* 
than the thing feen <acii •Grtpirzodv, on the head 
of Jefus, was a real dove : for, as only a dsve- 
like motion is intimated in this latter expremon, Co 
only -a fame-like mitwi is intimated in the for- 
mer ; and what this was, the h} ifTorun tells us 
in its efre&, the appearance ef cloven Tcngztes* 
The learned Perfon is certainly miflaken in fup- 
pofmg a fitdden fajk cf lightening has naturally 
the appearance of cloren Tongues. Such a 
phenomenon exhibits to the eye of the be- 
holder only a line of light angularly broken 
into feveral directions ; very different from 
the form of Tongues, whether whole or cloven. 
Whenever a flame aflumes this appearance, it 
is become ftationary, as this was, v.mich, the 
Hiftorian fays, Sat upon each of them, iko^kts : 
and then its natural motion being upwards, it 
reprefents, when divided lengthwife, a pyra- 
midal or tongue-like figure, cloven, A demon- 

(7) P. 8z. 

B 4 firatioa 

8 On the Office and Operations £. I. 

flration that the Appearance m queftion was 
not momentary, but of fome continuance. 

The learned Writer having thus accounted 
for the Precurfor of the gift, comes to confuler 
the Gift itfelf ; and attempts to mew that " the 
" chief or sole end rather of the gift of 
•* Tongues was to ferve as a feniible fign in that 
" infirm State of the firft Chriftians, that thofe 
" to whom it was vouchfafed were under a di- 
" vine influence, and acled by a divine com~ 

" miffion. So that it is not reafonable to 

*' think that this diverfky of Tongues was given to 
" the Apoflles for the fake of converting thofe 
" people before whom they then fpoke (8)." 
Hence (fays he) " it appears that the gift was 
" not of a liable or permanent nature (9)." — 
That is, it was no lafiing endowment, to en- 
able the Apoflles to perform their Miniflry a- 
mongfl thofe whofe language they had never 
learnt ; but, a momentary power which ferved 
that day for a fgn to the Multitude : and con- 
sequently, they had thefe languages to learn 
anew when they wanted the ufe of them. This, 
1 fay, appears to be his inference j for the ar- 
guments he brings to fupport his principle, will 
lead us to no other. At the fame time it mud be 
obferved he has laid down the proportion fo 
loofely, and ambiguoufly, that, when confidered 
alone, it may either mean, " That the power 
of fpeaking itrange languages was only infufed 
occafionly, like the power of working miracles y 
orelfe, " That the knowlege of the- language, 
when infufed, was not lafiing, but momen- 

(8) P. S 7 . (9) P. 89. 


C. II. of //^HolySpirit. $ 

tary, like the cloven Tongues ; the infpired Lin- 
gui'ft prefently falling back into his natural ftate 
of idiotifm." 

In the firft fenfe, the AfTertion feems to be 
well founded : and from its fobriety, and more 
efpecially from the extravagance of the other 
meaning, which leaves but little diftindtion be- 
tween the power of fpeaking ftrange Tongues 
at the day of Pentecoft, and the extatick ravings 
of modern Fanaticks, one would wifh to find 
was the fenfe we could fairly afcribe to it. 

But then all the arguments employed by the 
learned Perfon, for the fupport of his propor- 
tion, confine us, as we fhall now fee, to the 
other meaning. 

1. His firft argument is the authority of forhe 
modern Critics (i). But I may be excufed, if 
I fuffer thefe to have no more weight with me 
when they contradict a received interpretation, 
than they ufually have with him when they 
confirm it, 

2. His fecond argument is an inference from 
Scripture itfelf. " It appears (he thinks) from 
the Stories of Cornelius's family, and the Difci* 
pies at Ephefus (both of whom fpoke with 
tongues on the Holy Ghoft's defcending on 
them, while Peter preached to one, and Paul 
baptifed the other) that the gift was not lafling 
feut inftantaneous ; and given only for a fign 
of their real admiffton into the Church of 

fi) P. 89. 

B 5 Chrift ;» 

IO Ojp the Office and Operations B. I. 

Chrift :** for, as he truly obferves, " here was 
ct no room to fuppofe another ufe, the feve- 
cc ral Aflemblies being all of the fame fpeech* 
* c and language (2)." 

But here the learned Perfon from particular 
cafes draws a general inference: becaufe, in this 
cafe, he fees no other ufe than for a ftgn^ he 
concludes the gift to be momentary in all 
other. By a better way of reafoning therefore, 
he will fuffer us to conclude, that where we 
do fee another ufe^ as in the gift at Pentecoft, 
that there it was as lafting as the ufe to which 
it ferved : And an equitable Judge will con- 
clude for us both, that the fame endowment 
whLh in. one inftance was tranfitory, might, ia 
another, laft fcr life. 

The Converts of the family of Cornelius, and' 
the Difciples at Ephefus were in a private fta- 
tion in the Church : fo that an inftantaneous 
«xerctfe of the power fully anfwered its end : 
It was &fign that thefe converts were indeed be- 
come members of Chrift's myftical body, the 
Church, as well by the baptifm of the Spirit 
as cf Water. ,But the cafe was different with 
xefpect to the Apoftles : They were the appoint- 
ed preachers of the Gofpel to remote and bar- 
barous nations : an office not to be difcharged 
without a competent knowlege of the various 
languages o£ihe Earth. We find them, on the 
day of Pcntecofl, miraculoufly endowed with 
thiti knewlegc What aie we to think, but 

(z) P. $$, 6. 


C. III. cf tbs Holy Spirit. i r 

that the principal end of the Gift was to qua* 
lify them for their Million ? 

3. The learned Writer's third argument in 
fupport of his opinion, is taken from the flile 
of Scripture, and is to this purpofe : " That 
were the gift of tongues lafting, it would have 
been employed in the compofition of their Gof- 
pels and Eplfltes : But that it was not there em- 
ployed, appears from the barbarity of the ftile ; 
fince whatever comes from God muft be perfect 
in its kind j fo that, in this cafe, we fhould be 
fure to find the purity of Plato, and the elo- 
quence of Cicero :" But the confideration of this 
argument coming more properly under another 
head of this Difcourfe, for that we (hall referve 
it ; and might here take leave of this fubjecl:, 
the duration of the gift of tongues ; as the common 
opinion remains unimpaired by his attack, and is 
ftill in pofTedion of alrthecircurnftances of credit 
in which he found it. 


YE T fince this new interpretation (which 
makes the gift fo tranfitory, and the 
power conferred by it fo momentary) may be 
applied by licentious men to purpofes the learn- 
ed perfon might never intend, it cannot be too* 
carefully confidered. 

Who hath not hea^d of the wnndrous powers: 
of the imagination, when raifed and inflamed. 

B 6 ix# 

12 On the Offce and Operations B. I. 

by fanaticifm ? And tho' we be ignorant of its 
utmoft force, yet we know enough of it to con- 
vince us, that this faculty of the mind, the 
Nurfe and Parent of Enthufiafm, is able to 
put on every form of preternatural femblance. 
There are many well attefted cafes in modern 
Hiftory, (altho' we (hould agree that they have 
loft nothing of the marvellous in the telling) 
where Enthufiafls, in their extafies, have talked 
yery fluently in the learned languages, of which 
they had a very imperfect knowlege in their 
fober intervals. " When I faw (fays the noble 
" author of the Char aft erlftics) the Gentleman* 
" who has writ lately in defence of revived 
<c prophecy, (and has fince fallen himfelfinto 
" the prophetic extafies) lately under an agita- 
** tion (as they call it) uttering prophecy in a 
<c pompous latin ftyle, of which out of his ex- 
tafy, it feems, he is wholly incapable, it 
brought into my mind the latin poet's de- 
fcription of the Sibyl, &c. (3)" And it is 
remarkable, that inftances of this kind have oc- 
curred fo frequently, that Thyraeus, a famous 
popifh Exorcift, as blinded as he was by the 
fiiperftitious impiety of demoniacal pouefnons, 
has, in his Direftory, exprefsly declared it to be 
the common opinion of his brotherhood, that 
the fpeaking Jlrange languages is no certain fign 
of a Pojeffion, and warns the Exorcift againft 
this illufion (4). 

Now were it generally believed that the 
fpesking with Jt range tongues in the firft ages 

(3) Letter concerning Enthufiafm^ § 6. 

(4) De Pacmouiacis, c. xxii. 



C. IIL 5///^ Holy Spirit. i 3 

of Chriftianity, was a mere fleeting, tranfitory 
power, the bold licence of our times would be 
ready to conclude that it was much of the fame 
kind with thefe feats of modern Fanatics. For 
let us confider how the matter would be thought 
to (land, on the reprefentation of this learned 
writer : A fudden flafh of lightening, under the 
fancied figure of cloven-tongues , kindles the fiery 
imaginations of a number of enthufiaftic men, 
met together in a tumultuary aiTembly, and in- 
flaming one another's fanaticifm by mutual col- 
lifion; and in this temper, they began to /peak 
with tongues as the fpirit gave them utterance, 

I fhall therefore endeavour to fhew, in the 
laft place, that this new interpretation contra- 
dicts what Scripture itfelf exprefsly delivers 
of the use and, by neceffary inference, of the 
duration of this gift of tongues on the day of 

The learned writer affirms, " that this know- 
lege was tranfitory, ferving only for an occa- 
fional fign, and not intended for the ufe of the 
apoftolic miflion." Now Jefus himfelf tells us, 
that it was intended for this ufe : Who, on his 
leaving the world, comforts his difciples with 
this promife :-— — But ye Jhall receive power, 
after that the Holy Ghofi is come upon you : and ye 
Jhall be witnesses unto me, unto the utter- 
most part of the earth (5), recorded 
by the Evangelic writer, as an introduction to 
his narrative of the miraculous gift of tongues^; 
which he confiders as the completion of this 

(5) Ads i. 8, 
> 1 promife j 

T4 On the Office and Operations B. I, 

promife ; and that the power to be received, vr as 
the power then given : the ufe of which, as we 
fee, was to enable the Difciples to become zvit- 
nejfes unto him, unto the uttermojl part of the 
Earth. We find St. Paul had this Power, not 
only in the fulleft meafure, but in a proportionable 
duration ; for, endeavouring to moderate the 
excemve value which the Corinthians fet upon 
fpiritual gifts, he obferves, that, with regard to 
the moft fplendid of them, the gift of tongues, 
he himfelf had the advantage of them all— — 
/ thank my God (fays he) that I fpeak with tongues 
more than you all (6). The occafion fhevvs that 
he confidered this his acquirement as a fpiritual 
gift : and his ufing the prefent time, {hews that 
he boafted of it as then in his pollemon. But 
why did he fpeak with more tongues than all 
of them ? For a good reafon ; he was the pe- 
culiar Apoftle cf the Gentiles ; and was to 
preach the Gofpel amongft remote and barba- 
rous nations. Whom then (hall we believe ? 
Shall we take his word who prom i fed the gift > 
(hall we take his, on whom it was bellowed ; 
or fhall we prefer to both-, the conjectures of 
this learned and ingenious Modern ? 

Would reafon or the truth of things fuffer us 
to be fo compliant, we might concede to Un- 
believers all which they fancy the learned writer 
hath procured for them, " that the power of 
tongues was temporary, and, like the power of 
healing, poiTelTed occafionally," without being 
alarmed at asiy confequence they will be able 

£6) 'C. xiv. ver, *8— ^aMov yXucra-uK. XotXuu, 


CMII. cf the Holy Spirit. 15 

to deduce from it. For let it but be granted 
(and they mult grant it, or prevaricate) that 
the gift of tongues returned as often as they 
had occafion for it, and it is no great matter 
where the power refided in the mean time. 

But neither reafon nor the truth of things 
will furter us to be thus compliant. The power 
of healing or of working miracles (to which 
the learned writer compares the gift of tongues) 
is, during the whole courfe of its operation, 
one continued arreft or diverfion of the general 
laws of matter and motion : it was therefore 
fitting that this power fhould be given occa- 
fionally. But the [peaking with tongues , when 
once the gift was conferred, became, from, 
thenceforth, a natural power ; juft as the free 
and perfect ufe of the members of the body, 
after they have, been reftored, by miracle, to 
the exercife of their natural functions. Indeed, 
to have loft the gift of tongues after this tem- 
porary ufe of it, would imply another miracle y 
for it muft have been by actual deprivation, un- 
lefs we fuppofe the Apoftles mere, irrational 
organs through which divine founds were con- 
veyed. In a word, it was as much in the courfe 
of Nature for an Apoftle, whom the Holy Spirit 
on the day of Pentecoft, had enabled to fpeak 
a ftiange language, ever afterwards to have the 
ufe of that language, as it was for the Cripple, 
whom Jefus had reftored to the ufe of his limbs 
on the Sabbath day, ever afterwards to walk, 
run, and peiform all. the functions of a man 
perfectly found and whole. In one thing, in- 
deed, the power of. healing, and of fpeaking 
with, ftrange tongues coincided 3 As the Dif- 


1 6 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

ciples could not heal at all times, fo neither 
could they fpeak at all times in what unknown 
dialect they mould chufe to converfe : Yet when 
Once, by the Holy Spirit, they had been enabled 
to fpeak and underftand a language, they could 
not but retain the ufe of it, with the fame faci- 
lity as if they had acquired 'it In the ordinary 
way of inftru&ion. But the confufion in tins' 
affair, and the learned perfon's embarras when 
he dates the queftion, arife from not diftinguifh- 
ing, in thefe two cafes, between the aclive 
power and the pajjive gift. In healing, the 
Apoftles are to be confidercd as the workers 
of a miracle ; in fpeaking ftrange tongues a3 
the perfons on whom a miracle is performed. 



THUS far with regard to this extraordi- 
nary defcent of the Holy Ghofr, as the 
Guide of truth. And this being as well 
the first fruits as the type and seal of 
all infpired knowkge, the facred Hiftorian 
thought proper to give us a circumftantial rela- 
tion of fo important an adventure. 

The other endowments from the fpirit of 
truth he hath mentioned only occasionally. So 
that had not the Subject of one of St. Paul'* 
Epiftles led the writer to enumerate thofe va- 
rious Gifts, as they were afterwards difiributed 
amongft the Faithful, we fhould have had a 
very imperfect knowlege of their whole ex- 

C. IV. ^//^ Holy Spirit. 17 

tent. The Church of Corinth was foolifhly 
elated by fpiritual pride ; which St. Paul endea- 
voured to mortify and humble : And in apply- 
ing his remedy, he begins with reckoning up 
thofe various graces, the credit of which they 
had abufed, by their indulgence of this unhap- 
py temper — Concerning fpiritual gifts (fays he) 
/ would not have you ignorant. Now there are 
diverfities of gifts, but the fame fpirit. To one is 
given by the fpirit the word of wisdom ; to 
another ', the word of knowlege ^y the fame 
fpirit ; to another ; the gifts of healing by 
the fame fpirit ; to another ; working of mira- 
cles ; to another ; prophecy ; to another, dis- 
cerning of spirits (i). And when he 
comes to apply his premiiles, and to fhew the 
inferiority of all thefe gifts to Charity, he reca- 
pitulates the moft diftinguifhed of them in the 
following manner : — tho* I have the gift of pro- 
phecy, and under/land all mysteries, and all 
knowlege ; and th<? I have all faith fo that 
I could remove mountains , and have no Charity , / 
am nothing (2). 

In explaining the nature of thefe gifts, the 
two pafTages will afford light to one another. 

The firft he mentions, is the word of wis- 
dom (3). By which, I think, we muff, under- 
ftand, all the great principles of natural religion (4). 
The ancients ufcd the term in this fenfe : and 
we can hardly give it another, in the place be- 

(1) I Cor. xii. \. Sc feq. (2) C. xiii. 2. 

( 5 / Aoyoc crc'p'ta.i;. 

(4) In this fenfe St. Paul ufes the vv^rd. Col Iv. 
5* E? cro'p'ici Tr^iTrcxT^Ts Trro? rye i.;-, , 


2 8 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

fore us, where we fee it diftinguifhed from the 

WORD OF KNOWLEGE (5), which follows, 

and evidently means all the great principles cf the 
revealed - y the term yvZ<ri<; being as peculiarly 
applied by Chriftian writers to revealed Reli- 
gion (6), as (Ttipix is by the Pagan, to ?;a!ural : 
and it is no lei's a generic term than the other, 
being mentioned in the next chapter, with one 
of its fpecies, — #// Mystery and all knowlcge : 
for msftery is that part of knoivhgt which regards 
the interpretation cf fuch jewifh prophches as 
concern the new Difpenjation. In a word, our 
Apoftle fpeaking, in another place, of Chrifr, 
who perfected Revelation, built (from its firfr. 
delivery and rudiments) on natural Religion^ 
ufes the two terms in thefe affigned figniiica- 
tions. — In whem (fays he) are kid all the trta- 
fures of wisdom and knowlege (7). 

(6) St. Paul ufes it in this fenfe, 2 Cor. xf. 6. 

"El $s x<xt Iharni t&> A©y&?, a?^' » tjj TNCSEI. And St. 
Peter I Ep. iil. 7. Oi a?^f$ o-xcI&k;, a-vvoixtvks xalx 

TNfiriN. From this term, thofe early Heretics, who 
fo much deformed the fimplicity and purity of the 
Chriilian faith by vifionary pretences to a fuperior 
kncw.'ege of Revelation, took their name. 

(7) Ev 'Z t\c\ tsuvTct oi Srerav^o) rr,$ XO<I>IAX t^ rni 
rJSf2LEn2 «7r^v£ci. ColofT. ii. 3. He ufes the 
word ct7ic>x£v<pct, as having in the foregoing vcrfe called 
this iv'Jjcm and kncivltge to [xvrr^iov rQ Gee. Phat 
the word o-otyla is ufed in the fenfe here contended for, 
is plain from his immediately fubjoining a warning 
againfi vain philofophy, /3A£7rc?£ pjTtc t^a\- %-m ex- 
?.tt r uytov ctx rvq $i\iao<p'ia<;, C5V. As much as to fay, 
I prefent )Ou with the treafures of />«? wifdom — 
»£ Bza-u^o) rv< aotfa$ — take care that no body deceive 
you with ihefal/e. 


C, IV. *//^ Holy Spirit. i*> 

In the recapitulation, Faith, we fee, is 
.Beckoned amongfl the gifts of the Spirit t and 
.in the following chapter, where thefe graces are 
again mentioned, he explains its nature to us, 
in calling it a Faith luhich could remove mountains, 
cr fuch a Faith as was attended wi h the power 
©f controlling Nature; alluding to that want, 
with which Jefus i -braids his Difciples, where 
he fays,- — had ye Ftfitb as a grain cf ' mujlard-fed, 
ye Jhould fay unto this mountain , Remove hence into 
yonder place, and it /hall remove (8). 

The two next gifts, of healing and work- 
ing miracles, are two fpeciefes of the fore- 
going genus. By healing is meant that falutary 
afTiftance adminiftered to the fick, in a folemn 
office of the Church, as directed by St. James (9) : 
and by working miracles, a more private and ex- 
temporaneous exercife of the fame power, the/ 
lefs confined in its objects (1). 

Prophecy, which follows, plainly fignifles, 
foretelling the future fortunes of the Church, to 

(8) Matt. xvii. 20. 

(9) Is any fick among you ? let him call for the Elders 
of the Church ; and let them pray c-V'.r him, anointing 
him wish cil in the name cf the Lord ; and the prayer 
of Faith [i. e. the faith mentioned juft before] jkall 

fa-ve the fick, and the Lord ft all r.ife him up. Gen. 
Ep v. 14. 

(1) The yjx£<Tpa) i x Ixf/MTw properly exprefTes gifts 
belonging to the Church as fuch, and heey^Oa hv»- 
l*.!uv implies virtue refiding in the individual or parti- 
cular Agent. Befides we may obferve, xxflo-psi}* 
lu[A.d.Tuv was a lefs degree of miraculous power than 
the ivtpyvitotla Svwptwv, and is exprefly intimated fo to 


20 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

the comfort and edification (as St. Paul ex- 
prefifes it) of the Affembly. He that prophe- 
5IETH Jpeaketh unto men to edification and exhor- 
tation and comfort (2). And thefe effects, gene- 
rally attending the act of Prophecy, in a little 
time aiTumed its name (3). But the proper 
fenfe of Prophecy., and that in which it is to be 
underftood in this place, is the foretelling things 
to come ; which Jefus hnnfelf declares to be one 
offential part of the ofRce of the Holy Spirit, 
Howhcit, vjhen the Spirit of truth is come, he will 
guide yen into all truth — and he will shew you 

The fail of thefe gifts, in the order of things, 
as well as in the Apoftle's enumeration of them, 
is the discerning of Spirits. The reputa- 
tion attending the exercife of thefe extraordinary 
endowments would be a frrong temptation to 
Impoilors to mimic and belye their powers; as 
we fee it was in the cafe of Simon the Magician. 
It graciou/ly pleafed the Holy Spirit, therefore, 
amidft the bounty of thefe gifts, to beftcw one, 
whofe property it was to bring all the others to 
the teft (5), by the Virtue which the poffefTor 
of it had, of diftinguifhing between true and 
falfe Infpiration, where accidental ambiguity or 

(2) 1 Cor. xiv. 3. 

(3) As Rom. xii. 6. — 1 Cor. xiii. 9 — xiv. 1 , & 24. 

(4) John Xvi. 13. x} t* l?XfifKvot ivscfye^t ttuuri 

(5) hxitfUftij pv$vfuerv9 •"haitgt&tt is ufed in other 
places in this Signification — pi sU &o*pio-«s h'ebfyuk 

pat, Rom. XIV. I. — «rpo$ S.czKficriv «»Aa re xj xctxS, 

Heb. v. 14. — ttvevparu:*, offzri/s or divine afflations. 
And fa the Author ufes it, a little after, iwstpdlct tap- 
(pf.vr, c, xiv. 32. 


'C. IV. c//^ Holy Spirit, 21 

defigned impofture had made the matter doubt- 
ful or fufpected.. 

Thefe gifts, St. Paul tells us, were feverally 
diftributed amongft the Faithful. But the Apo- 
ftles themfelves, as Scripture leads us to con- 
clude, had them all in conjunction ; exercifed 
them in fuller meafure ; fupported them by ad- 
ditional revelations (6) ; and (as hath been 
proved of one of them at leaft) poflefTed them 
by a more lading title. 

But, for a fuller account of their nature and 
their ufe, we mufl haverecourfe to Scripture 
itfelf, which contains the hiftory of their va- 
rious fruits. And as the richeft of thefe fruits 
is the inspiration of scripture itfelf I 
fliall felect this for the fubject of what I have 
further to fay of the primitive operations of the 
Holy Spirit ; efpecially as this hath, in thefe 
latter times, been called in queftion. 

(0 Notv, Brethren, if I come unto you /peaking <witb 
tongues, what Jhall I -profit you, except Ijhallfpeak unto 
you either by Revelation, or by knovolege, or by pro- 
phefying, or by doctrine. I Cor. xiv. 6. And this ad- 
ditional gift of Revelation, which conveyed the fur- 
ther knowlege of God's will in the Gofpel, feems 
properly to have been appropriated to the Apoftles, 
with defign to dignify their office. 


22 On the Office and Operations B. I. 


WE may obferve, that the Miniltry of the 
Apoftles confided of thefe two parts ; 
(i.) The temporary and occafional inftruclions 
of thofe Chriilians whom they had brought to 
the knowlege of, and faith in, Jefus, the Mef- 
fiah ; (2.) and the care of compofing a writ- 
ten rule for the direction of the Church 
throughout all ages. Now it being granted, 
becaufe, by the hiitory of the Atts of the Apojiles^ 
it may be proved, that they were divinely in- 
fpired in the difcharge of the temporary part; 
it muft be very ftrong evidence indeed which 
can induce an unprejudiced man to fufpe£r, that 
they were left to themfelves m the execution of 
the other. Their preaching could only profit 
their Contemporaries : For inftruclions conveyed 
to future ages by Tradition are fpon loft and 
forgotten ; or, what is worfe, polluted and 
corrupted with fables. It is reafonable there- 
fore to think, that the Church was provided 
with a written rule. The good providence 
of God hath indeed made this provifion. And 
the Scriptures of the New Teftament have been 
received by all the Faithful, as divine Oracles, 
as the infpired dictates of the Holy Spirit; till 
Superftition extending the notion of infpiration 
to an extravagant length, over-cautious Be- 
lievers joined with Libertines, who had taken 
advantage of the others' folly, to deny or bring 
in queftion all infpiration whatever. For ex- 
tremes beget each other ; and when thus be- 
gotten, they are fuffered, in order to preferve 
the balance of the moral fyjiem y as frequently 


C. V. s/^ Holy Spirit, 23 

to fupport as to deftroy one another; that, 
while they fubfift, each may defeat the mif- 
chiefs which the other threatens ; and when 
they fall, both of them may fall together. 

I mail therefore take upon me to expofe the 
extravagance of either folly ; and then endea- 
vour to fettle the true notion of Scrip- 

1. We have feen how fully gifted the Apo- 
flles were for the bufinefs of their Million. 
They worked Miracles, they fpake withTongues, 
they explained Myfteries, they interpreted Pro- 
phecies, they difcerned the true from the falfe 
pretences to the Spirit : And all this, for the 
temporary and occafional difcharge of their Mi- 
niflry. Is it poffible then, to fuppofe them to 
be deferted by their divine Inlightener when 
they fat down to the other part of their work ; 
to frame a rule for the lafting fervice of the 
Church ? Can we believe that that Spirit, 
which fo bountifully aflifled them in their Af- 
femblies, had withdrawn himfelf when they 
retired to their private Oratories : or that when 
their fpecch was with all power, their writings 
fhowld convey no more than the weak and falli- 
ble dictates of human knowlege ? To fuppofe 
the endowments of the Spirit to be fo capri- 
ciously beftowed, would make it look more like 
a mockery' than a gift. And, to believe all 
this would be a harder tafk than what (the 
Deift tells us) religious credulity impofes on us. 
No candid man therefore will be backward to 
conclude, that what powers the Apoftles had 
for the temporary ufe of their Miniftry, they 


24 On the Office and Operation* B. ]. 

had, at leaft in as large a meafure, for the per- 
petual fervice of the Church. 

2. St. Paul, where he recommends the fludy 
of the Scriptures of the Old Teftament, to Ti- 
mothy-, exprefly declares them to be inspired, 
in that general proportion, All Scripture is given 
by infpiration of God (4). Now if in theMofaic 
Difpenfation, the written Rule was given by in- 
fpiration of God, where the Church was con- 
dueled in every ftep, at nrft by Oracular re- 
fponfes, and afterwards by a long feries and 
continued fucceffion of Prophets ; and all this 
under an extraordinary administration of Provi- 
vidence, fuch as might well feem to fuperfede 
the neceflity of a (criptural infpiration ; how 
confidently may we conclude, that the fame 
divine Goodnefs would give the infallible 
guide of an infpired Scripture to the Chriftian 
Church, where the miraculous influence of the 
Holy Spirit is fuppofed to have ceafed with the 
Apoftolic ages, and where the administration 
of Providence is only ordinary f Nor can it be 
laid, that what St. Paul predicates of Scripture 
muft be confined to the Law, (whofe very 
name indeed implies infpiration) and what is 
prefatory to it ; fince the largenefs of his terms, 
all Scripture, extends to the whole Canon of the 
Old Teftament, as then received by the two 
Churches. And this general expreffion was the 
more expedient, as the hifloric writings did not 
either by their nature, like the Prophetic, or 
by their name, like the Legal, neceflarily imply 
their coming immediately from God. The 

(4) 2 Tim. iii. 16. 


C. V . ^/^ Holy Spirit. 25 

Canonical books of the Old Teftament, there- 
fore, being infpired, Reafon directs us to ex- 
pect the fame quality in the New. And, as 
in the Old, amongft feveral occafional writings, 
there was the fundamental record, or the great 
charter of the Pentateuch; and in the Vo- 
lumes of the Prophets, the Oracular predictions 
of the future fortunes of the Church to the first 
coming of the Mefliah ; fo, in the New, there 
is, beiides the occafional Epiltles, the authentic 
Record or great charter of the Gofpel- 
Covcnant ; and in the Revelations of St. John, 
the fame divine predictions continued to the 
second coming of the Saviour of the World. 

3. The reafon of the thing likewife fupports 
us in concluding for this infpiration. An uni- 
verfal Rule of human conduct implies as unli- 
mited an obedience : the nature of fuch a Rule 
re-quiring it to be received entire ; and to be ob- 
served in every article. But when once it is 
fuppofed to come to us, tho' from Heaven, yet 
not immediately, but thro' the canal of an un- 
infpired inftmment, liable to error both in the 
receiving 2nd in the difpenfing cf it, men 
would be perpetually tempted to own juft as 
much as, and no more than, they liked to be- 
lieve, or were difpofed to praclife ; and to re;e£l 
the red as a mere human impofition. Nay the 
very reafons which the writers a^ainfi: this infpi- 
ration give us, why it is not afforded, feem to 
fhew the neceflity why it fhould : fuch as the 
imperfect knowledge that the Apoftles had of 
the genius of Chriftianity ; their difputes and 
differences with one another ; their miftakes in 
matters -of eafy prevention, tho 5 of little confe- 

C quence, 

2 6 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

quence, &c. for if the Compofers qf a Rule cf 
faith for the univerfal Church were thu^, natu- 
rally defective in hiftoric and religious know- 
lege, What fecurity could we have for their not 
miileading us in things of moment, unrefs pre- 
vented by the guard and guidance of the Holy 
Spirit, while they engaged themfelves in this 
important talk ? 

I am enough fenfible of the wenknefs and 
folly of that kind of reafoning which concludes 
from right to facl ; and afTumes, that becaufe a 
4ahing is imagined to be expedient, ufeful, or 
neceflary in God's moral Government, that 
therefore he hath indeed made provifion for it. 
Thus the Papal Doctors, in their arguments 
for the Jlandirg power of Miracles and the ap- 
pointment of an infallible Guide, having endea- 
voured to fhew that the nrft is neceflary for thofe 
without, and the fecond for thofe within, would 
draw us to conclude with them, that the true 
Church hath, in fact, the exercife and ufe of 
miracles and infallibility. 

But the cafes are widely different. It is by 
jio means agreed, that the Church, after the 
Apoflolic as;es, was in the pofleilion of fo large 
a portion of the Holy Spirit as to enable either 
this pretended head, cr its members, to exert 
the powers in quefbon : Whereas it is confefieo 1 
bv all, that at the time thefe Scriptures were 
written, the Compofers of them were divinely 
infptted for the occafional work of the Mi- 
nistry : And the only queftion in difpute is, 
Whether that Spirit which aided them in de- 
fending the Golpel before the tribunals of Kings 


C. V» cf the Holy Spirit. 2.7 

and M-agiflrates (5) — in working miracles be- 
fore the multitude of Unbelievers — and in pro- 
phecying and explaining Myfteries to the aflem- 
blies of the Faithful, whether this Spirit, I fay, 
did accompany, or defert them, when they re- 
tired within themfelves, to compofe a rule of 
faith for the perpetual fervice of the Church ? 

4. But laftly, we have the clear teftimony 
of Scripture for this infpiration. And tho' the 
bearing witnefs to it felf (6) might be reafonably 
objected in an argument addrefled to Unbeliev- 
ers, yet being here inforced againft fuch of the 
Faithful who doubt or hefitate concerning the 
infpiration of the New Teftament, it hath all 
the propriety we can defire. 

I venture therefore to fay, that St. Paul, in 
the general proportion quoted above, which 
affirms that all Scripture is given hy infpiration of 
God (7), necefiarily includes the Scriptures in 
queftion ; what it predicates of all Scripture 
taking in the new as well as old-, as well that 
which was to be written, as that which was al- 
ready collected into a Canon. For the term, 
Scripture, as the context leads us to underftand 
it, is general, and means, a religious Rule, 
perfect in its direction, for the conduct of hu- 

(5) 4nd when they bring you unto the Synagogues^ 
an-, unto Vog'rjirctes and Powers, take ye 'no thought 
hew or what th'ng ye flail anfwer, or what ye Jball 
f'x: f,r the Hdy Ghof Jhall teach you in the fame 

hour what ye ought to Jay. Luke xii. 1 1, 12. 

(6) If I bear witnefs "cf ' my felf my witnefs is not true. 
Jwlin v. 31. 

(7) Usls-a, y^x^r, $i07rvtvr&- &c. . 

C 2 maa 

28 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

man life, in belief and practice : it being under 
this idea that he recommends the Scriptures to 
Timothy. The afTertion therefore is univerfal, 
and amounts to this, " That divine Infpiration 
is an efTential quality of every Scripture, which 
conftitutes the law or rule of a Religion 
coming from God." 

On the whole then, we conclude, that all 
the Scriptures of the New Tefament were given by 
infpiration of God. And thus the prophetic 
promife of our bleffed Matter, that the Com- 
forter Jhould abide zuitb us for ever, was emi- 
nently fulfilled. For tho', according to the 
promife, his ordinary influence occafionally af- 
fifts the Faithful of all ages, yet his conftant 
abode and fupreme illumination is in the facred 
Scriptures of the New Teflament (8). 


(8) The late Mr. William Law, who obfcured a 
good underilanding by the fumes of the rankeft en- 
thufiafm, and deprived a found judgment, ilill fur- 
ther, by the prejudices he took up againit. all Sobrieiy 
in Religion, feized the above paragraph, as he found 
it detached from the difcourfe in a quotation made of 
it, by an ingenious writer; and thus defcants upon 
it : " Dr. Warburton's doctrine is this, that the in- 
fpired books of the New Teitament is the Com- 
forter or fpirit of truth and illuminator, which is 
meant by Chrift's being always with the Church. 
V Let us therefore put the Doctor's doctrine into the 
<{ letter of the text, which will belt fhew how true or 
** falfe it is. Chrift faith, If any man love me, my 
* s Father will lome him, and tve will come unto him, 
" and make our abode ixitb him. That is, according 
" to the Doctor's theology, certain books of Scripture 
11 will come to him, and make their abode with him ; 

*« for 



C. VI. cf the Holy Spirit. 29 



T remains only to be confidered, In what 
fenfe we are to underfland this infpiration ? 

A fpurious opinion, begotten in the jewifti 
Church by fuperftition, and nurfed up by mif- 
taken piety in the Christian, hath aboft puffed 
into an article of Faith, " That the language 
cf Scripture was dictated by the holy Spirit in 

C 3 fuch 

" fcr he exprefly confine th the (onfant abode and 
" fupreme illumination of God to the holy Scriptures. 
** Therefore (horrible to fay) God's inward pie- 
" fence, his operating power of life and 
'* light in cur fouls, his dwelling in us, and we in 
" him, is fomething of a lower nature, that only may 
** occafionally happen, and has lefs of God in it than 
" the dead letter of Scripture, which alone is the 
" cofant abode and fupreme illumination. Miferable 

11 fruits of a paradoxical genius !.*' A humble % 

earne/l, and ajfefiionate addre/s to the Clergy, p. 69-70, 

This poor man, whether mifled by his fanaticifm 
or his fpleen, has here fallen into a trap which his 
folly laid for his malice. In the difcourfe, from 
whence the paragraph fo feverely handled is taken, 
I treated dilUnttly of thefe two branches of the Holy 
Spirit ; ! . As he illuminates the Underjlanding under 
the title of the Spirit of truth. 2. As he rectifies the 
Will under the title of the Comforter : by the firft of 
which, he ejlablijbcs our faith ; and by the fecond, he 
pi ft ds cur obedience. 

Now it is under the fir ft bianch in which this ob- 
noxious paragraph is found. So that common fenfe 
and common honefty require, that when I fay, the 
cor jl ant abode and fupreme illumination of the Holy Spi- 

30 On the Office and Operations B, I, 

fuch fort that the Writers were but the paffive 
organs thro' which every word and letter were 
conveyed.*' And as Superflition feldom knows 
where to flop, the Mahometans improved upon 
this fancy, and reprefented tfieir Scriptures as 
fent them down from Heaven ready written, 
Having got into fo fair a train, the next theo- 
logical queftion in honour of the Alcoran was, 
whether it was created or uncreated', and the or- 
thodox determination, we may be fure, was in 
favour of the latter. But it was a rabbinical 
hyperbole^ concerning the unvariable reading 
or the copies of the Law, which feems to have 
given the Mahometan Doctors a hint for this 
lad conceit, concerning the phyfical nature of 
the Alcoran (9). 

But there are many objections to that idea of 
organic infprration, which miftaken piety hath 


rit is in the Sacred Scriptures of the Neiv Tejlament, 
I fbould be underftood to mean, that he is there only 
as the illuminator of the underfianding, the ejlallijher of 
cu* faith. But Mr. Law applies my words to the 
other branch of his office, as the redfer of the Will, 
the perfeSier of obedience ', and fo makes my obferva- 
tion nonfenfe in order to arraign it of impiety. 

(9) Orobio, fpeaking the language of the Rabbins, 
fay?, — Liber Mofis eft ita perfe&us et purus, atque ab 
erroribus alienus, ab ejus conditore per tot fecuia variis 
in nationibus fervatus, ut cteiera naturalla quae Deus 
non corruptioni expofita creavit ; ut Cceli, Sol et Af- 
tra, quae a faa formatione non majore Providentia in- 
corrupta, fervantur et fubfiftunt, quam divini legifi 
libri, qui nunquam aliquam mutationem expert! fue- 
runt. J pud limb. p. 147. 

I. It 

C. VI. cf/^ Holy Spirit. ?i 

1. It would be putting the holy Spirit on an 
unneceffary employment ; for much of thefe 
facred Volumes being hiirorical, and of fa£ts 
and difcourfes which had fallen under the ob- 
fervation of the Writers, they did not need his 
immediate aiTifhnce to do this part of their bu- 
finefs for them. 

2. Had the Scriptures been written under this 
organic infpiration, there muit have been the 
moir perfect agreement amongft the four Evan- 
gelifts, in every circumftance of the /mailed faclr. 
But we fee there is not this perfecl: agreement. 
In fome minute particulars, which regard nei- 
ther faith nor manners ; neither the truth nor 
certainty of the Hiftory in general, the feveral 
Writers vary from one another. A variation, 
which, tho' it dtferedits the notion of an organic 
infpiration, yet (which is of much more im- 
portance) fupports the fidelity of the H-ifto.* 
rians ; as it fhews that they did not write in 
concert, or copy from one another ; but that 
each defcribed the proper impreflions which the 
fame fa£r.s had made upon himfelf. 

3. Were this the true idea of Scripture-in- 
fpiration, that each Writer was but the mere 
organ of the Spirit, the phrafeology or turn of 
expreffion had been one and the fame through- 
out all the facred books written in the fame 
language : whereas we find it to be very dif- 
ferent and various ; always correfponding to 
the conditions, tempers, and capacities of the 

C 4 4. Laftly, 

32 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

4. Laftly, the very words of Scripture muit, 
in this cafe, have been preferved, throughout 
all ages, perfectly pure and free from the cor- 
ruptions and miftakes of tranfcribers. For if it 
were expedient, ufeful and forting with the 
\iews of divine wifciom, that every word and 
letter fhould be infpired, it was equrJly expe- 
dient that every word and letter fhould be pre- 
lerved uncorrupt ; otherwife the holy Spirit. 
would appear to have laboured in vain. Now 
general experience allures us that this is not the 
cafe : frequent tranfcribing hath occafioned nu- 
merous variations in words and phrafes through- 
out all the Scriptures of the New Teftament. 
But tho' this oppofes the notion of organic in- 
fpiration, yet the harmlefs nature of the varia- 
tions, which never difturb the fenfe, nor ob- 
icure a fingle proportion of Faith, or precept 
of good manners, affords us a noble inftance 
of the gracious providence of God, in bringing 
down to us thofe Scriptures, deftined for an in- 
fallible ride) incorrupt and entire, in all efien- 
tial and even material points ; tho' after efcap- 
ing the impure hands of fo many outrageous 
Bigots, fchifmatic Vifionaries, and heretical 
Seducers, they had a long journey "(till to run, 
through the dark cloifters of dreaming Superfti- 
ticn, and of ignorance but half awake. 

. Frcm all this we conclude, that the notion- 
of organic infpiration rnuft needs be falfe : and 
yet we have proved it to be an undoubted truth,- 
that the Scriptures of the New Teftament were' 
given by the infpiration of God. 


C. VII. 0///^ Holy Spirit. 33 


IE T us confider then, in what fenfe this 
_j infpiration is to be underftood. — From the 
premifes we can deduce no other notion of it 
but this, " That the Holy Spirit fo directed 
the pens of thefe Writers that no confiderable 
error fhould fall from them : — by enlightening 
them with his immediate influence in all fuch 
matters as were necefTary for the inuruciion oF 
the Church, and which, either thro' ignorance 
or prjeudice, they would otherwife have repre- 
fented imperfectly, partially, or falfely y and by 
preferving them by the more ordinary means 
of providence, from any miftakes of confe- 
quence, concerning thofe things whereof they 
had acquired a competent knowlege by the 
common way of information. In a word, by 
watching over them inceffantly ; but with fa 
fufpended a hand, as permitted the ufe, and left 
them to the guidance, of their own faculties,, 
while they kept clear of error ; and then only 
interpofing when, without this divine aiHitance^ 
they woudd have been in danger of falling." 

This feems to be the true idea of the infpU 
ration in queftion. This only doth agree with 
all appearances 5 and will fully anfwer the pur- 
pofe of an infpired writing, which is to afford 
an infallible role for the direction of the 
Catholic Church ► 

But it is not only the nature and genius, the 
ftate and condition of Holy Scripture, which. 

C 3 ' fuppoxt 

34 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

fupport this idea of infpiration : The exprefs 
words of its compofers lead to the fame conclu- 
fion. St. Peter, fpeaking of the Epiftles of his 
fellow-labourer St. Paul, ufes this temperate 
exprefiion concerning their infpiration ; he hath 
written to you, fays he, according to the wifdom 
given unto him (i) : now, as on the one hand, 
by the character of this wifdom, which is faid to 
be given, we muft conclude it to be that wif- 
dom coming immediately from above-, fo, from this 
account of the Apoftle's free ufe of it, who 
employed it as the regulator of. his thoughts and 
conceptions, we wuft conclude on the other, 
that there was no infpiration ruling irrefiftibly, 
further than to fecure the writer from error and 
miftake. And the diffidence with which the 
Apoft!e himfelf fpeaks, on a certain occafion (2), 
concerning his infpiration, fhews that it could 
not be organic, for this fpecies excludes all doubt 
and uncertainty concerning its prefence. 

But it may be faid, that, on this moderated 
idea of infpiration, we fhall never be able to 
difringuifn which parts were 'written under the 
immediate influence of the Spirit, and which 
were the product of human knowlege only. 
What if we mail not ? Where is the mifchief 
or inconvenience ? while all we want to know 
is, that every fentence of Scripture, which but 
remotely concerns either faith or practice, is in- 
fallibly true. It is of little confequence to 
us to be inftructed how or in what manner that 

(0 KATA rr.v avra AG0EISAN coQiw 2 Per* 

Ul. 1C. ' 

(l) $0*u cl xclyv >H,\vp<X ©jot EjQCU; I jCci, vii- 40. 


C. VII. c//,^ Holy Spirit. 35 

truth came to be fecured : whether by direct 
infpiration ; or by th it virtual fuperintendence 
of the Spirit, which preferved the writers of it 
from error. Scripture is the rule of Chriftian 
conduct -, and if the rule be known to be un- 
erring, this is all that is wanting to efFe&uate 
its end. 

And yet I am perfuaded, licentious men have 
been the forwarder to contend for this moderated 
infpiration, under the idea of a partial one, on 
the pleafing fancy that it would fupport them in 
believing no more than fuited with their prin- 
ciples or their practice. But, what hath been 
obferved on this head fufficiently expofes the va- 
nity of all fuch idle contrivances to let men 
loofe from any part of their faith or duty. For, 
be it admitted that this or that particular doc- 
trine or precept was not delivered under the 
immediate influence of the Holy Spirit, but was 
conveyed to pofterity, in tn"e common way of 
hiftory, as the writer received it from his mafter, 
yet this takes nothing at all from that certainty 
of truth which attends direcler infpiration j 
fince the rational idea of a partial influence im- 
plies, that the Spirit fo watched over the Au- 
thors of the New Teftament, and fo guided 
their pens, as to admit no mixture of material 
error in thofe parts where they difcharged no 
more than the fun&ion of ordinary Hiitorians. 

In a word, it imports us little to be foiicl- 
tous about the Scriptural delivery of Gofpel 
truths -, whether they be conveyed to us by 
means merely human, or by the more powerful 
workings of the Holy Spirit, fo long as we are 

C 6 allured 

36 On the Off a and Operation) B.I. 

allured that divine Providence guarded that de- 
livery from all approach of error. But then let 
•us obferve that this is a very different thing 
from the origine of the Truths themfelves : 
for on this latter, the reality of our Religion, 
indeed, depends ; the very nature of it confid- 
ing in this, that the doctrines which it teach- 
eth be not only Truths simply, but Truths 
revealed from Heaven. And indeed, even 
with regard to the delivery, when the Writers 
propofe any thing of faith or praclice, expla- 
natory of what their mailer taught, and not 
explicitly contained in his words, we muft needs 
conclude, that fo far forth they were under the 
immediate direction of the Holy Spirit, who was 
to teach them all things: and this influence the 
Apoftle calls, fpeaking by revelation (3). 

Thus we fee the advantages refulting from a 
partial inspiration as here contended for 
and explained. It anfwers all the ends of a 
Scripture univerfally and organically infpirech, 
by producing an unerring rule of Faith 
and Manners ; and befides, obviates all thofe 
objections to infpiration which arife from the 
too high notion of it : Such as trifling errors in 
circumftances of fmall importance ; for the lead 
error is inconfiflent with organic infpiration, 
but may well fland with a virtual and coope- 
rating inBuence : Such again, as the various 
readings in the fevei al tranferipts ; and the va- 
rious ftyles amongft the feveral, Authors of 
Scripture 5 incenftftencies which would never 

(3) tdv p» upi» %a**av h AIIOKAAYYEJ. 1 Cor. 


C. V i II. c/'^ Holy Spirit. 37 

have been permitted, and contrarieties which 
could never have happened, under univerfal in- 
fpiration ; but which are the natural and harm- 
lefs confequences of the partial. 

In a word, by admitting no more than this 
lower kind of infpiration, (o warmly contended 
for (and in terms as vague and indeterminate as 
the Scepticifrn of the ufers) by men who were 
in hopes that the admirlion of it would end in 
no infpiration at all, we fecure and eftablifh the 
infallible word of Scripture ; and free it from 
all thofe embarrafling circumftances which have 
been fo artfully and difingenuoufly thrown out 
to its difcredit.. 


BU T there is no idea of an infpired Scrip- 
ture which libertine men have not pervert- 
ed to ferve their evil purpofes. Thus, when 
their own idea of a partial infpiration hath fail- 
ed in this fervrce, they have tried what mifchief 
that other, of our invention-, an organic infpi- 
ration, was likely to produce. In order to this 
they have laid it down as a propofition not likely 
to be contefted, " that, on this idea, the work 
infpired could be ko other than a perfect model 
of eloquence, pure, clear, noble and affefling 
beyond the force of common fpeech" To this, it 
was thought enough to mew, that their Prin- 
ciple was falfe ; that, in the compofition of fa- 
cred Scripture, there was no vganic infpiration : 


38 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

and this, I prefume, I have fufficiently per- 

But, luckily for their purpofe, there is ano- 
ther circumftance in the difpenfation of Grace, 
which reftores their objection, concerning a per- 
feci model of eloquence, to its native force. This 
circumftance therefore is now ft) be confidered ; 
the ufe made of it, fairly repreiented ; and the 
proper reafoning applied, to enervate its new 
recovered force. 

The circumftance is this : Several books of 
the New Teftament are written by perfons who 
acquired the knowlege of the Greek tongue by 
miraculous infunon, as at the day of Pentecoft. 
" Now the Holy Ghoft, fay they, could not 
but infpire the pureft Greek, and the moft 
perfect eloquence in the ufe of it ; whatever 
they wrote therefore in any future time* in this 
language, muft needs bear thefe marks of its 
Celeftial birth, whether they were aflifted in the 
compofition by the Holy Spirit ; or whether 
they wrote upon the fund of their formerly ac- 
quired knowlege. But the language of all the 
books of the New Teftament is utterly rude 
and barbarous, and favours nothing of fo high 
an original. " 

The learned Perfon (whofe reafoning againft 
the duration of the infpired knowlege of lan- 
guage on the day of Pentecoft, hath been con- 
fidered above) lends the Libertine thefe arms, 
in his concluding argument, in fupport of that 
notion ; which argument I have referved to be 
confidered in this place. 

" If 

C. VIII. if the Holy Spirit. 39 

" If we allow (fays he) the gift to be lad- 
ing, we muft conclude that fome at leaft of 
the books of Scripture were in this infpired 
Greek. But (fays he) we fhould naturally 
expect to find an infpired language to be fuch 
as is worthy of God ; that is, pure, clear, 
noble, and affecting, even beyond the force 
of common fpeech ; fince nothing can come 
from God but what is perfect in its kind. 
In fhort, the purity of Plato, and the elo- 
quence of Cicero. Now (continues he) if 
we try the apoftolic language by this rule, 
we (hall be fo far from afcribing it to God, 
that we fhall fcarce think it worthy of Man, 
that is, of the liberal and polite ; it being 
utterly rude and barbarous, and abounding 
with every fault that can poflibly deform a 
language. And tho' fome writers, prompted 
by a falfe zeal, have attempted to defend the 
purity of the Scripture-Greek, their labour 
has been idly employed (1)." 

Thefe triumphant obfervations are founded 
on two propofitions, both of which he takes for 
granted, and yet neither of them is true. 

1. The one, That an infpired language muft 
needs be a language of perfect eloquence. 

2. The other, That eloquence is fomethin°; 
congenial and effential to human fpeech. I 
fhalf fhew the falfehood of both. 

(1) Dr. Middleton's ejfay $n the gift of tongues. 
Work?, Vol. II. p. 91. 


40 On the Office and Operations B, I. 

With regard to the firft propofition, I will 
be bold to affirm, that were the Style of the 
New Teftament exactly fuch as his very ex- 
aggerated account of it would perfuade us to 
believe, namely, that it is utterly rude and bar- 
barous^ and abounding with every fault that can 
pojfibly deform a language, this is fo far from prov- 
ing fuch language not divinely infpired, that 
it is one certain mark of this original. 

I will not pretend to point out which books 
of the New Teftament were or were not com- 
pofed by thofe who had the Greek tongue thus 
miraculously infufed into them; but this I will 
venture to fay, that the ftyle of a writer fo in- 
fpired, who had not (as thefe writers had not) 
afterwards cultivated his knowlege of the lan- 
guage on the principles of Grecian eloquence, 
would be precifely fuch as we find it in the 
books of the New Teftament. 

For, if this only be allowed, which no one, 
I think, will conteft with me, that a ftrange 
language acquired by illiterate men, in the ordi- 
nary way, would be full of the idioms of their 
native tongue, juft as the Scripture-Greek is 
obferved to be full of Syriafms and Hebraifms 5 
how can it be pretended, by thofe who reflect 
upon the nature of language, that a ftrange 
tongue divinely infufed into illiterate men, like 
that at the day of Pentecoft, could have any 
other properties or conditions ? 

Let us weigh thefe cafes impartially. Every 
language conlifts of two diftincl parts ; the 
fingle terms* and the phrafes and idioms. The 


C, VIII. j/^Holy Spirit. 4* 

firft, as far as concerns appellatives efpecially, 
is of mere arbitrary impofttion, tho' on artificial 
principles common to all men : The fecond 
arifes infenlibly, but conftantly, from the man- 
ners, cuftoms, and tempers of thofe to whom 
the lan^uao-e is vernacular ; and fo becomes, 
tho' much lefs arbitrary, (as what the Gram- 
marians call congrnity is more concerned in 
this part than in the other) yet various and 
different as the feveral tribes and nations or* 
mankind. The firft therefore is unrelated to 
every thing but to the genius of language in 
general ; the fecond hath an intimate connex- 
ion with the fafhions, notions, and opinions of 
that people only, to whom the language is 

Let us confider then the conftant way which 
illiterate men take to acquire the knowlege of 
a foreign tongue. Do they not make it their 
principal, and, at firft, their only ftudy, to trea- 
sure up in their memory the fignification of the 
terms ? Hence, when they come to talk or write 
in the fpeech thus acquired, their language is 
found to be full of their own native idioms. And 
thus it will continue, till by long ufe of the 
ftrange tongue, and efpecially by long acquain- 
tance with the owners of it, they have imbibed 
the particular genius of the language. 

Suppofe then this foreign tongue, inftead of 
being; thus rradually introduced into the minds 
of thefe illiterate men, was inftantaneoufly in- 
fufed into them ; the operation (tho' not the 
very mode of operating) being the fame, mud 
not the effect be the fame, let the caufe be 


4.2 On the Office and Operations B. -I. 

never (j different ? Without queftion. The 
divine impreflion muft be made either by fixing 
the terms or Tingle words only and their Sig- 
nification in the memory ; as for inilance, 
Greek terms correfponding to the Syriac or 
Hebrew ; or elfe, together with that flmple 
impreffion, another mull: be made^to inrich the 
mind with all the ideas which go towards the 
compofing the phrafes and idioms of the ^lan- 
guage fo infpired: But this latter impreilion 
feems to require, or rather indeed implies, a 
previous one, of the tempers, fafhions and opi- 
nions of the people to whom the language is 
native, upon the minds of thofe to whom the 
language is thus imparted ; becaufe the phrafe 
and idiom ariies from and is dependent on the 
manners arifmg from thence : and therefore the 
force of expremon can be underftood only in 
proportion to the knowlege of thofe manners : 
and undcrftood they were to be ; the Recipients 
of this fpiritual gift being not organical Canals, 
but rational Difpenfers. So that this would be 
a vvafte of miracles without a fufficient caufe ; 
the Syriac or Hebrew idiom, to which the Dif- 
ciples were enabled of themfelves to adapt the 
words of the Greek or any other language, 
abundantly ferving every ufeful purpofe, all 
which centered in the communicating of clear 
information. We conclude, therefore, that 
what was thus infpired was the terms, toge- 
ther with that grammatic congruity in the ufe 
of them, which is dependant thereon. In a 
"word, to fuppofe fuch kind of infpired know- 
lege of Jlrange tongues as includes all the native 
peculiarities, which, if you will, you may call 
their elegancies y (for the more a language is 


C. VI II. of the Ho ly Sr ir it. 43 

t oioured by the cha; acler and manners of the native 
ufers, the more elegant it is efteemed) to fup- 
pofe this, is, as I have faid, an ignorant fancy, 
ind repugnant to reafon and experience. 

Now, from what hath been obferved, it fol- 
lows, that if the ftyle of the New Teftament 
were indeed derived from a language divinely 
infufed as on the day of Pentecoft, it muft be 
juft fuch, with regard to its ftyle, which, in 
fact, we find it to be ; that is to fay, Greek 
terms very frequently delivered in Syriac and 
Hebrew idiom. 

The conclufion from the whole is this, that 
at nominal or local barbarity of ftyle, (for that 
this attribute, when applied to ftyle, is no more 
than nominal or local, will be clearly fhewn un- 
der our next head) is fo far from being an ob- 
jection to its miraculous acquifition, that it is 
one mark of fuch extraordinary original. 

But the learned writer is fo perfectly fatisfied 

that this barbarity of ftyle, which claims the 

title of infpired, is a fure mark of impofture, 

that he almoft ventures to foretell, it will prove 

the deftruction of thofe pretenfions, as it did to 

the Delphic Oracles. The parallel, he thinks, 

is a curiofity ; and fo do I ; therefore the reader 

ihall have it juft as he himfelf has drefled it up. 

" It is fomewhat curious to obferve, that there 

" was a controverfy of the fame kind amongft 

<c the Ancient Heathens concerning the ftyle 

" and compofition of the Delphic Oracles. For 

<c as thofe Oracles were delivered in verfe, and 

" the verfes generally rude and harfh, and of- 

" fending 




44 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

" fending frequently both in the exaclnefs 
r< of metre and propriety of language, fo 
" men of fenfe eafily faw that they could not be 
cc infpired by the Deity : others, on the contrary, 
" blinded by their prejudices, or urged by their 
M zeal, to fuppcrt the credit of the popular 
fuperftition, conftantly maintained, that the 
verfes were really beautiful and noble, and 
worthy of God ; and that the contrary opi- 
" nion flowed from a falfe delicacy and fiekly 
" tafle, which relifhed no poetry, but what 
" was foft and fweet ; and breathing nothing, 
" as it were, but fpices and perfumes. The 
" difpute however feems to have been com- 
" pounded, and a difrinc"tion found, in which 
all parties acquiefced, by allowing fome fort of 
infpiration^ and divine authority to the matter  
" of the Oracle^ but leaving all the reft to the 
" proper talents and faculties of the Prophetefs : 
<c who being tired at laft with the continual 
" labour of verifying, began to utter her 
" Oracles in profe, till the whole impofture 
u fell by degrees into an univerfal contempt^ 
« and fo finally expired (2)." 

A fad flory ! But, happily, theeflfential dif- 
ferences between thefe oracular pretenfions, and 
thofe cf the Chriftian Evangelifts, (all of which 
the learned Writer has thought proper to over- 
look) will eafe us of our fears ; for any one of 
thefe differences is fufficient to (hew, that tho' 
the objection may hold good againft the heathen 

(2) Efay on the gift of tongues, Vol. I!, of Middle- 
ton's Works, p. 01 — 2. 


C. VIII. 5///^ Holy Spirit. $$ 

Oracles, yet it has not the leaft force againfl 
Scripture infpiration. 

1. Fit ft then the Delphic Oracles were fuppof- 
ed to proceed from the fabled God of verfe, who 
having, according to the popular opinion, in- 
fpired his Poets as well as Prophets, there was, 
in the writings of the moft authentic of the 
former, a model of divine eloquence, on which 

the pretenfions of the latter might he eftimated. 
But Scripture infpiration came profefledly from 
a Deity who had declared that his thought* 
are not our thoughts, neither are our ways his 
ways. For as the heavens are higher than the 
earth, &c. (3) 

2. The Delphic Oracles were delivered in, 
verfe or meafure ; for the compofition of which, 
there were eftablifhed rules, formed on the 
writings of the ancient Poets : when therefore 
this fpecies of eloquence was employed by the 
Delphic Prophetefs, if fhe conformed not to the 
eftablifhed rules, but offended againfl the metre, 
which her own God originally infpired, fhe 
might be fairly adjudged an impoftor. But 
the infpired Penmen di (claimed all models of 
human eloquence, and the enticing words of mans 

3. The Delphic Prophetefs was a mere organ, 
her Prophecies being delivered in a fit of extacy, 
when the presence of the God was fuppofed to 
obliterate all the impreflions of human ideas \ 
fo that every iota was to be placed to the ac« 

(3) Ifaiah, lv. 8, 9. 

I count 

46 On the Office and Operations B. 

count of the infpiring God. But it was juft 
otherwife with fuch as were actuated by the 
Holy Spirit : Theie, in the very moments of 
infpiration, flill retained the free ufe of them- 
felves, and continued mafters of their rational 
and perfuafive faculties; the Spirits of the Prophets 
(as St. Paul informs us, who fpoke from his 
own experience) were fubj eft to the Prophets (4) / 
The Pagan Zealots therefore grofly prevari- 
cated, when, to cover the impofture of the 
Delphic Oracle, they compromifed the matter 
with their adverfaries, by allowing fome fort of 
infpiration, and divine authority, but leaving all 
the rejl to the proper talents and facrdties of the 
Prophctefs. But the Defenders of our holy 
Religion, when they fay the fame thing; in de- 
fence of facred Scripture, do neither prevari- 
cate nor compromife j they advance, and they 
adhere to, a reafonable and confident hypo- 
thecs ; which, in an examination of the pre- 
fent ftate of the books of the New Terta- 
ment as tranfmitted down to us from the earliest 
antiquity, I have fhewn to be actually fupported 
by fa&. 

On the whole then, we need not be too 
much alarmed at the hint which the learned 
Writer hath here given us, in the fate of the 
Delphic Oracles, tho' never fo tragically re- 
lated ; The Prophetefs tired at lajl with the 

continual labour of verfifying, began to utter her 
oracles in prose, till the whole imp of ure fell by 
degrees into an univerfal contempt, and jo finally 
expired-, I fay we need not be much alarmed at 

(4) ! Cor. xiv. 32. 


C. VIII. of the Holy Spirit. 47 

this cataftrope, becaufe our Oracles hold no- 
thing in common with the Delphic; and becaufe 
the difgrace brought upon thei'e was derived nei- 
ther from their bad verfe nor barbarous profe ; 
but from very different caufes, which the learned 
Perfon either did not know, or at leaft did not 
care that his Reader fhould. 

In a word, there is but one fingle mark of 
jefemblance in all this oftentatious parallel ; 
and that does not lie between the Pagan and 
Chriftian Oracles, but between their Defenders ; 
who, with equal indifcretion, contended for 
purity, elegance, and"beauty of ftyle, wherein 
one cafe it was not to be found, tho' pretended 
to ; and in the other, neither pretended to, nor 
found. The defenders of the Delphic Oracles, 
the learned Perfon thus defcribes, that, blinded 
by their prejudices, or urged by their zeal to fupport 
the credit cf the popular fuperjliiion, they conJla?itly 
maintained, that the verfes ivere really beautiful 
and noble, and worthy of God ; and that the con- 
trary opinion fioived from a falfe delicacy, and 
fickly ta/le, which relijhed no poetry, but what was 
foft and fweet, and breathing nothing/ but fpiccs 
and perfumes. The Defenders of Scripture elo- 
quence he had before represented in the fame 
light. — And tho' feme Writers, prompted by a 
falfe Zeal, have attempted to defend the purity cf 
Scripture-Greek, their labours have been idly em- 

Nothing, indeed, is more certain. Their la- 
bours have been very idly employed. One com- 
mon delufion has milled the zealous defenders 
of all religions on this head, net only the Pagan 


On the Office and Operations B. I v 

and the ChrijVian, but, as we have feen, the 
Mahometan like wife. And here let me obferve, 
what is well worth our notice, that that com- 
mon imbecillity of our nature, which leads the 
profeflbrs of all Religions into the fame fpecific 
abfurdities of the marvekus, tho' without imi- 
tating one another, has (when blundering on, 
in the obfcure of Superftiticn, or the blind blaze 
of Fanaticifm) generally been more fuccefsful in 
the fupport of falfe Religion than of the true. 
Of this I have occaficnally given divers inftances 
elfew T here. One of them, which I juft now 
chanced to mention, will deferve to be ex- 
plained. The Mahometan Doctors were (with 
their Mafter) under this common delufion, that 
an infpired writing mud needs be a perfect 
model of eloquence. And they fucceeded better 
than the Chriftian ; for they had advantages 
which our zealots had not. For firft, Maho- 
met himfelf delivered the Alcoran to his fol- 
lowers under this character ; and defied the 
Mailers of human eloquence to equal it; whereas 
the writers of holy Scripture difclaim all thcf'e 
fantastic advantages. Secondly, when Mahomet 
retailed his Alcoran, there was no acknowleged 
model of Arabic eloquence ; but when the 
books of the New Tenament were compofed, 
there were many, and of the higheft authority ; 
fo that thofe bold pretentions eafily obtained^ 
and foon fmcothed the way for its actually 
becoming fuch a model. Laflly, Enthufiafm* 
which had juft done much greater things, eafily 
induced the Saracens to believe, that they faw 
what their Prophet fo confidently objected to 
their admiration, an all-perfect model of elo- 
quence in the Chapters of the Alcoran. And 


C. IX. of the Holy a p i r i t. 4_a 

they believed fo long till the book became in 
fact, what at firft they had only fancied it, as 
real and fubitantial a pattern of eloquence as 
any whatfoever ; a paradox, which, like many 
others that I have had the odd fortune to ad- 
vance, will prefently be feen to be only another 
name for Truth. But here in the North-weft, 
our enthufiafm is neither fo exalted, nor our 
habits fo conftant. We have neither the 
knack of perfuading ourfelves fo readily, nor 
the humour of flicking to a fafhion, fo obfti- 

However foolifh then our falfe Zealots have 
Jhcwn themf elves in attempting to defend the purity 
of the Scripture Greeks it little became the learn- 
ed Writer, of all men, to make them the fubje<a 
of. his derifion; fince the fame falfe principle^ 
which betrayed them into one extreme, hath 
milled him into another. The principle I 
mean, (and it has milled many befides) is that 
which lays it down for truth, That an infpired 
Scripture tnuft be a model of perfeel eloquence* 


THIS brings us to the learned Writer's 
fecond proportion, ,whigh I promifed to 

examine ; and on which the principle, here de- 
livered, is founded. It is this, 

D 2, That 

^;o On the Office and Operations B. I. 

2. That eloquence is fomething congenial 
and eflential to human fpeech ; and inherent in 
the conftitution of things. 

This fuppofes, that there is fome certain 
Archetype in nature, to which that quality 
refers, and on which it is to be formed and 
modeled. And, indeed, admitting this to be the 
cafe, one (hould be apt enough to conclude, 
that when the Author of Nature condefcended 
to infpire one of thefe plaftic performances of 
human art, he would make it by the exa&eft 
pattern of the Archetype. 

But the proportion is fanciful and falfe, 
Eloquence is not congenial or eflential to hu- 
man fpeech, nor is there any Archetype in na- 
ture to which that quality refers. It is acciden- 
tal and arbitrary, and depends on cuftom and 
fafhion : It is a mode of human communication 
which changes with the changing climates of 
the Earth ; and is as various and unftable as the 
genius, temper, and manners of its diverfified 
inhabitants. For what is purity but the ufe 
of fuch terms, with their multiplied combina- 
tions, as the intereft, the complexion, or the 
caprice of a Writer or Speaker of Authority 
hath preferred to its equals ? What is ele- 
gance but fuch a turn of idiom as a fafhionable 
fancy hath brought into repute? And what is 
sublimity but the application of fuch images, 
as arbitrary or cafual connexions, rather than 
•their own native grandeur, have dignified and 
ennobled ? Now Elcx^uence is a compound of 
thefe three qualities of Speech, and confequently 
muft be as nominal and unfubflantial as its 


C. IX. of the Holy S p i r i t. 5$ 

Conflituent parts. So that, that mode of com- 
pofition, which is a model of perfect eloquence to 
one nation or people, muft appear extravagant 
or mean to another. And thus in fac~t it was. 
Indian and Afiatic Eloquence were efteemed 
hyperbolic, unnatural, abrupt and puerile to the 
more phlegmatic inhabitants of Rome and 
Athens. And the Weftern Eloquence, in its 
turn, appeared nervelefs and effeminate, frigid 
•or infipid to the hardy and inflamed imaginations 
of the Eaft. Nay, what is more, each fpecies, 
even of the moll: approved genus, chang'd its 
nature with the change of clime and language ; 
and the fame expreffion, which, in one place, had 
the utmoft fonplicity, had, in another, the ut- 

Longinus reading thefe words in the Septua- 
gint, God [aid, Let there be lights and there was 
Tights and regulating his ideas on the genius of 
his own language, very acutely gave them as 
an example of t?he Sublime. We may be fure 
the judgment of fo ace omplifhed a Critic, would 
be eagerly laid hold on by our Doctor's zealous 
DivineSy to exalt the credit of Mofes's elocution. 
Indeed, the fublime introduction to the book of 
Oenefrs puffed, for a long time, unqueftioned. 
At lemzth Huetius and Le Clerc, more care- 
fully attending to the otiginal text, difcovered 
that the words were fo far from being fubtime 9 
that they were of the utmoft ftmplicity ; and 
each of thefe Critics compofed a long differta- 
tion to fupport his opinion. So far was well ; 
•but not content with what they had done, they 
would needs prove that Longinus was miftaken 
in his criticifm of the Greek. This provoked 

D 2 -the 

52 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

the Poet Boileau, who had juft tranfiated that 
celebrated work, to fupport his Author's judg- 
ment ; and (as he was in the fame delufion 
with his adverfaries) he did it by endeavouring 
to prove the fublime of the original expreflion. 
This furnifhed matter for anfwers and replies 
in abundance: Whereas, had the difputants 
but reflected, t' at the fame expreffion, which 
in one language was highly fublhne, might, in 
another, be extremely fimple, the judgment of 
the Greek critic would have been confeffed by 
Huetius and Le Clerc, and the biblical know- 
lege of thefe two learned Interpreters allowed 
of by Boileau. As the rcafon of all this ferves 
to illuftrate what is here advanced concerning 
the nature of eloquence, I fhall endeavour to ex- 
plain it. The ideas arifing from the knowlege 
iof the true God, and his attributes, were fami- 
liar to Mofes ; and whenever ideas are familiar 
they raife no emotion ; confequently the ex- 
pre'Iion of fuch ideas will naturally be cold and 
fimple. There is the utmoft fimplicity in the 
\vo;ds — God f aid, Let there be light, and there 
was light : And nothing but their fimplicity 
would be feen or felt by a Jewifh Read?r, to 
whom the fame religious were equally fa- 
miliar. But let a Greek, brought up and edu- 
cated in the groveling and puerile notions which . 
his national Theology produced and fupported, 
let fuch a one, I fay, raife himfclf with pain, 
by the {hong effort of a fuperi jr genius, 

« Tothenr(tGood,firitPerfea, and firft Fair," 

the new ideas, with which his mind is warmed 
and enlarged by the knowlege of the true God 


C. IX. ff/^ Holy Spirit. 53 

and his Attributes, naturally produce admiration ; 
and admiration in a Genius, is the parent of 
fublime expreflion. So that when the fubject is 
Creation, his point will be to convey the higheft 
idea of Omnipotence : but the effect of divine 
power, immediately following its volition, gives 
that higheft idea : therefore, in the midfr. of his 
fublime conceptions, he will hardly think of 
?.ny other words to convey them than — God faidy 
Let there he tight) and there was light. And 
every Greek Reader, to whom the ideas of true 
Theology were as novel and unfamiliar as they 
Were to the Writer, would naturally efleera 
that expreiu( n, which fo graphically defcribes 
the inftantaneous production of Omnipotence, 
to be infinitely sub-lime. 

Apply all this to the Books of the New Tes- 
tament, an authorised collection, profefledly 
defigned for the rule and direction of mankind. 
Now fuch a rule demanded that it mould be in- 
fpiredofCod. But infpired writing, the Ob- 
jectors fay, implies the moft pei-fett eloquence. 
What human model then was the Holy Ghoft 
to follow ? And a human model, of arbitrary 
construction, it muft needs be, becaufe there 
was no other : Or if there were another, it 
would never fuit the purpoie, which was to 
make an imprefTion on the minds and affections ; 
and this im predion, fuch an eloquence only as 
that which had gained the popular ear, could 
effect. ShouM therefore the eajlern eloquence 
be employed ? But this would be too inflated 
and gigantic for the Weft. Should it be the 
wejhrn ? But this would be too cold and tor- 
pid for the Eajl. Or fuppofe the generic elo- 

D 3 quence- 

54 Q» ilc Offiu and Operations B. I. 

• inence of the more polifhed Nations was to be 
preferred, Which fptcies of it was to he em- 
ployed ? The rich exuberance of the Afiatic 
Greeks, or the dry concifenefs of the Spartans ? 
The pure and poignant eafe and flawing fweet- 
tiefs of the Attic modulation, or the ilrength 
and grave fe verity of the Roman tone ? Or 
fhould all give way to that African torrent, 
which arofe from the fermented mixture of the 
drees of Greece and Italy, and foon after over- 
'lowed the Church with theological conceits in 
a fparkling luxuriancy of thought, and a forn- 
brotis ranknefs of expreilion ? Thus various 
were the fpecies's ! all as much decried by a 
different Genus, and each as much difliked by 
a different Species, as the eloquence of the 
remoteft Eaft and Weft, by one another. 

But it will be faid, Are there not fome more 
fubilantial principles of eloquence, common to 
all r — Without doubt, there are. — Why then 
fnould not thefe have been employed, to do 
credit to the Apoftolic infpiration ? For good 
reafon s : refpecting both the Speaker and the 
Hearers. For what is eloquence but a perfua- 
ilve turn given to the elocution to fupply that 
inward, that confeious perfuafion of the Speaker, 
lb neceffary to gain a fair hearing ? But the firfr. 
Preachers of the Gofpel did not need a fucce-. 
daneum to that inward confeious perfuafion ! 
And what is the end of eloquence, even v/hen 
it extends no further than to thofe more general 
principles, but to flifle reafon, and inflame the 
pafiions ? But the propagation of Chriftian 
Truths indifpenfably requires the aid of Reafon, 
and requires no other human aid. And Reafon 


C. IX. ^//)«Holy Spirit. 55 

can never be fairly and vigoroufly exerted but; 
in that favourable interval which precedes the 
appeal to the Paffions. Thefe were the caufes 
which forced the Matters of eloquence to con- 
fefs, that the utmoft perfection of their art con- 
torts in keeping it concealed ; for that the offcen- 
tation of it feemed to indicate the abfence of 
Truth, — Ubiamque ars ojlendutur^ fays the molt 
candid and able of them all, Veritas abejfe vi~ 
deatur (1). Hence fo many various precepts to 
make their moil artificial periods appear artlefs. 
Now furely that was a very fufpicious inftru- 
ment for Heaven-directed Men, which, to pre- 
ferve its credit, muft pretend abfence, and la- 
bour to keep out of fight. 

What, therefore, do our ideas of fit and 
right tell us is required in the Style of an uni- 
verfal Law ? Certainly no more than- this — To 
employ thofe aids which are common to all 
Language as fuch j and to reject what is pecu- 
liar to each, as they are carnally circumnanced. 
And what are thefe aids but clearness and 
precision ? By thefe, the mind and fentiments 
of the Compofer are intelligibly conveyed to 
the Reader. Thefe qualities are efTential to 
language, as it is diftinguifned from jargon : 
they are eternally the fame, and independent on 
cuftom or fafhion. To give a language clearnefs 
was the office of Philofjphy ; to give it pr&cJ/ion 
was the office of Grammar. Definition per- 
forms the flrfr fervice by a refolution of the 
ideas which make up the terms ; Syntax is per- 
forms the fecond by a combination of the fcve- 

(1) Qu'nti I. ix o. 3, 
t*> D 4 ral 

56 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

ral parts of fpeech into a fyftematic congruity : 
thefe are the very things in language which are 
If aft pofitive, as being conducted on the princi- 
ples of Metaphyfics and Logic. Whereas, all 
befides, from the very power of the elements, 
and fgniflcation of the terms, to the tropes and 
figures of Compofition, are arbitrary ; and, 
what ip more, as thefe are a deviation from 
thefe principles of Metaphyfics and Logic, they 
are frequently vicious. This, the great Mailer, 
quoted above, freely confeffeth, where fpeaking 
of that ornamented fpeech, which he calls 
vyvifAc^Qf, XijrzuZ) he makes the following con- 
feifion and apology — " eiiet enim omne Schema 
" vitium, li non peteretur, fed accideret. 
" Verum aucStoritate, vetuftate, confuetudine, 
14 plerurr.que defenditur, faepe etiam ratione 
" quadam. Ideoque cum fit a fimplici rec- 
tc toque loquendi genere deflexa, virtus eft, ft 
" habet probabile aliquid quod fequa- 
" tur (2).'' 

Nov/ thefe qualities of clearnefs and precijion, 
fo neceffary to the communication of our ideas, 
eminently diflinguifri the Writers of the New 
Teftament ; inlomuch that it might be eafily 
fhewn, that whatever difficulties occur in the 
(acred Volumes, they do not arife from any im- 
perfection in the mode of conveying their ideas, 
occaficned by this local or nominal barbarity of 
Style ; but either from the fublime or obicure 
nature of the things conveyed to the Reader by 
words j or from the purpofed concifenefs of the 
^ Wiiter; who, in the occafonal mention of any 

(2) Quint. I. ix. c. 3. 


C. IX, (?//^Holy Spirit, 57 

matter unrelated, or not effential, to the DiC- 
penfation, always affecls a ftuJied brevity. 

But further ; Suppofe that, in fome cafes, an 
authentic Scripture, defigned for a religious 
rule, demanded this quality of local eloquence - t 
(for that, in general, it is not required, I have 
fully fhevvn above) let this, I fay, befuppofed, 
yet ftill it would not afFect the cafe in hand, 
fince it would be altogether unfuitable to the 
peculiar genius of the Gospel. It might 
eafily be known to have been the purpofe of 
Providence, (tho' fuch purpofe had not been 
exprefly declared) that the Gofpel mould bear 
all the fubitantial marks of it's divine Original - y 
as well in the circumftances of it's promulga- 
tion, as in the courfe of it's progrefs. To this 
end, the appointed Minifters of it's conveyance 
were perfons, mean and illiterate, and cho fen 
from arnongft the lowed of the people ; that 
when Sceptics and Unbelievers faw the world 
converted by the foolijhnefs of preaching, as ther 
learned Apoftle, in great humility, thinks fit 
to call it, they might have no pretence to afcribe 
the fuccefs, to the parts, the Itation, or the 
authority of the Preachers. Now had the lan- 
guage, infufed into thefe illiterate men, been 
the fublime of Plato, or the eloquence of Tully,, 
Providence would have appeared to counteract 
it's owrrrneafures, and defeat the purpofe beft 
calculated to advance it's glory. But God is 
wife, tho* ?T:ans a fool. And the courfe of his 
Wifdom was here, as every where elfe, uni- 
form and conftant. It not only chofe the 
weakeft Minifters of his Will, but kept out of 
their hands that powerful weapon of contorted 

D 5 Words, 

5 8 On the Office and Operations B. L 

Words, which their Adverfaries might fo eafily 
have wrefted to the difhonour of the Gofpel. 
So much was Dr. Middleton miftaken, when 
befides cleamefs, (which he might be allowed to 
expect) he fuppofes purity, noblenefs, and pa- 
thetic affcclion to be qualities infeparable from 
an infpired writing. St. Paul, who, ambngft 
thefe fimple Inftruments, was, for the fame 
wife purpofes, made an exception to the general 
choice, yet induftrioufly profecuted that fublime 
view, for the fake of which the choice was 
made ; by rejecting all other weapons but thofe 
of the Spirit, to fpread abroad the Conquefts of 
the Son of God. My fpeech (fays he) and my 
preaching was net with inticing words of man's 
wifdom, but in the demonftraticn of the Spirit and 
of Power. As much as to fay, " My fuccefs 
was not owing to the fophiftical eloquence of 
Rhetoricians, but to the fupernatural powers,, 
with which I was endowed, of interpreting 
Prophecies and working Miracles. " He fub- 
joins the reafon of his ufe of thefe means — that 
their faith Jhould not Ji and in the wifdom of ?nen, 
hut in the power of God. i. e. Be converted not 
hy force of Philofophy and Eloquence, but of 
the fupernatural gifts of the Spirit : Therefore 
(faith he again) God hath chofen the fcolifh things 
of the JVorld to confound the wife ; and the weak 
things of the World to confound the mighty (3). 
And left it fhould be faid, that this was an af- 
fectation of defpifing advantages which they 
themfelves could not reach, it pleafed Provi- 
dence that this declaration mould be made, not 
by one of the more fordid and idiotic of the 

(3) 1 Cor. ii. 4. 

number y 

C. IX. fl//^ Holy Spirit. 59 

number; but by Him, to whom both nature 
and difcipline had given powers to equal even 
the heights of Greek and Roman elocution. 
For we fee, by what now and then accidentally 
flames out in the fervor of his reafoning, that 
he had a ftrong and clear difcernment, a quick 
and lively imagination, and an extenfive and in- 
timate acquaintance with thofe Matters in. moral 
painting, the Greek Sophifts and Philofophers : 
all which he proudly facrificed to the glory of 
the everlajling Go/pel. Nor does he appear to 
have been confeious of any inconfiftency between 
an infplred language and it's local barbarity ofjlyle : 
For having had occafion, in this very Epiftle, 
to remind the Corinthians of the abundance of 
Spiritual grace beftowed upon him, he fays, / 
thank my God, J fpeak with tongues more than you 
/?ll (4) ; and yet he tells them that he is rude in 
fpeech (5). Which apparent inconfiftency the 
reader may accept, if he pleafes, for a further 
proof of the truth of what has been above de- 
livered, concerning the natural condition of an 
infpired language. 

Thus we fee, how unfuitable this quality of 
local eloquence would be to the peculiar genius 
of the Gofpel. Yet as there is, In the Old 
Teilament, much of this ornament of {iyle, and 
more imagined, it may not be improper to ex- 
plain the reafon of this diverfity, and (hew how 
confident the ufe of it is, in thofe places, with 
the principles already laid down. 

(4) 1 Cor. xiv. 18. (5) 2 Cor. xi. 6, 

3 6 1. Fii-fV 

6® On the Office and Operations B. 1^ 

1. Firfr, then, we may obferve that Judaifm 
was not an univerfal Religion, but inftituted for 
the ufe of a fingle people ; fo that none of the 
inconveniencies mentioned above of a local elo- 
quence^ could arife from the ufe of it, in that 

2. The Jewifh Religion had a public part (6) ; 
and confequently abounded in fuch Rites and 
Ceremonies, to which, an ornamented ftyle was 
well adapted. 

3. The fubjec"ts of feveral of the Books of the 
Old Teftament are in their nature poetical, fe- 
veral rhetorical, and fo feem to have demanded 
a Style fuitable to their genius. 

C H A P. X. 

AND now enough hath been faid to make 
a juft eftimate of the value of thofe objec- 
tions which two celebrated Writers (1) have 
in forced, with all their art and addrefs, againfr. 
the infpiration of the New Teftament, from it's 
local barbarity of ftyle. Dr. Middleton's ob- 
jection hath been confidered already. I mall 
chufe to clofe this firfr part of my difcourfe 
with an examination of that ftill more ingenious 
objection of the noble Author of the Charac- 
teristics ; who hath employed all the powers 

(6) See Div. Leg. Book V. 

(1) Dr, Middleton and lord Shafifbury. 

C. X. «//^ Holy Spirit. 6r 

of his wit and eloquence to expofe the want of 
thefe qualities ii> the facred Volumes. 

-" It rs no otherwise (fays his Lord- 

*« fhip) in the grammatical art of Characters 
" and painted speech than in the art of 
cc painting itfelf. I have feen, in certain 
P* Chriftian Churches, an ancient piece or two 9 
" affirmed, on the folemn faith of prieftlv tra- 
<6 dition, to have been angelically and divinely 
wrought by a fupernatural hand and facred 
pencil. Had the piece happened to be of a 
" hand like Raphael's I could have found no- 
" thing certain to oppofe to the tradition. But 
u having obferved the whole style and man- 
" ner of the pretended heavenly workmanfhip, 
" to be fo indifferent as to vary, in many par- 
<c ticulars, from the truth of art, I prelumed, 
" within myfelf, to beg pardon of the tradi- 
" tion, and affert confidently, that if the pencil 
" had been heaven-guided it could never have been 
** fo lame in it's performance : it being a mere 
" contradiction to all divine and moral truth, 
M that a celefial hand, fubmitting itfelf to the 
'<• rudiments of a human art, mould fin againft 
" the art itfelf, and exprefs falsehood and error 
" inftead of juftnefs and proportion (2)." 

This tale of St. Luke's painting, like the frory 
of the Delphic Oracles, needs no applica- 
tion. Every one fees that it is given to dilcredit 
the infpiration of holy Scripture. But as confi- 
dently as his Lordfhfp fays, he draws his con- 
clufions from it, he gives them no other fupport 

(2) Char aft. viii. p. 230. 


62 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

than this miftaken conceit, which he erects into 
an axiom : That it is no otherwife in the gramma- 
tical art of characlers and -painted fpeech than in 
the art of painting itfelf: or, in other words, that 
the painted fpeech of Characlers which reprefent 
ideas, and the painted images of things are per- 
formances of the fame kind. Now, in examin- 
ing their natures by the principles of human 
fpeech, before laid down and explained, it ap- 
pears that they are of very different kinds, 
having nothing in common but the office of 
giving information, truly and clearly, one of 
them by reprefenting the images of corporeal 
things ; the other by reprefenting the incorpo- 
real ideas of the Speaker's or writer's mind. 
And what thing is there, in art or nature, 
which does not hold fomething in common 
with another ? But the difference between thefe 
fs indeed no lefs than between things natural 
and things positive, between conftitutional 
and arbitrary; paintingbting imitation, and 
words only symbols. The fubjecl: of the 
firft, conftant, unvariable, neceffary ; as having 
it's archetype in nature : the other unftable, 
fhifting and capricious, as depending for it's 
exiftence on the human will, under the" direc- 
tion of fan:y and caprice. In painting there 
is, properly fpeaking, but one trueftyle, and that is 
an exadt imitation of nature. In speech there 
are as many true ffyles as there are tempers and. 
humours, cuftoms and fafhions amongff men. 
Eloquence, or truth cf/iyle, in fpeaking or writ- 
ing, being nothing elfe but the adapting the 
terms of human fpeech to the various concep- 
tions, fancies, and affections of the hearers ; fo 
that, as in painting there is but one true fly le, 


C. X. e//fc Holy Spirit. 63- 

and that real, becaufe an imitation of nature ; 
mfpeeck there are many true ftyles, but all fan- 
tastic, becaufe all are the creatures of arbi- 
trary fafhion. 

The noble Author himfelf feemed to fufpecT: 
that thefe two things had but a (lender connexion 
in nature, and therefore endeavoured to ftrength- 
en the tie by art. Hence his figurative expref- 
fions of painted speech, for writing, in or- 
der to clap up a forced alliance between writing 
and painting; and, on the contrary, style, 
for manner of painting, to bring painting and 
writing related. A favourable Critic may pof- 
fibly fay, that the noble Writer had no other 
purpofe, in the ufe of thefe elegant figures, than 
to ornament his language. Perhaps not. It is 
then only a remarkable example of the truth of 
an obfervation made above : " that the princi- 
pal end of eloquence, as it is employed in hu- 
man affairs, is to mifiead reafon, and to cajole 
the fancy and affections." 

On the whole then, All the conclufion we 
can reafonably draw from this noble Author's 
remarks on heavenly workmanship in 
painting and in fpeech, is only this, That if an 
infpired Painter were to give us a Picture, it 
would indeed equal or excel the pencil of Ra- 
phael ; becaufe here was a real Archetype to work 
by, that is to fay, Nature : But, if we may 
credit Reafon, whofe dictates, I am forry to 
fay, are not always thofe of his Lordfhip, an 
infpired Writer would receive no more ailiftance 
from Heaven in his expreflion, than what was 
necelTary to give his fpeech the effential quali- 

2 ties 

64 On the Office and Operations B. I. 

ties of all language, namely, clearness and 
precision ; becaufe here was no real archetype 
to follow ; the various modes of eloquence being 
moftly fantaftic, as exifting only in capricious 
cuftom ; and therefore unworthy the notice of 
a divine Infpirer. 

I have now gone thro' the firft part of my 
Difcourfe ; which propofed to confider the Office 
and Operations of the Holy Spirit as the guide 
of truth, who clears and enlightens the Un- 
derftanding. In this part, I have endeavoured 
to vindicate his firft Defcent and his infpiration 
of holy Scripture ; I have diftinguifhed the mode 
of that infpiration ; I have explained the cha- 
racter of an infpired language ; I have inquired 
into the nature of human eloquence, and have 
carefully examined the force of our free Reafon- 
ers, on every one of thefe diftinct heads* 


C.I. ^///^ Holy Spirit. 65 

' ~ BOOK II. 


TNOW proceed to the fecond branch of my 
Diicourfe, which is, to eonfider the Holy 
Spirit under the idea of the comforter, who 
purities and fupports the Will. 

And here, his divine power manlfeiled itfelf 
in the fame miraculous Operations. Sacred 
Antiquity is very large and full in its accounts 
of the fudden and entire change made by the 
Holy Spirit, in the difpofitions and manners of 
thofe whom it had enlightened ; inftantaneoufly 
effacing all their evil habits, and familiarizing 
their practice to the performance of every vir- 
tuous and pious action. 

To this illuftrious and triumphant conviction 
of the truth of Chriftianity, the very enemies 
and perfecutors of our holy Faith have been 
forced to bear witnefs : not only in the ferious , 
accounts which fome (1) of them have given of 
the innocence and virtue of primitive Chris- 
tianity ; but even in the mockery and ridi- 
cule of others (2), on the fubje£t. of the boafted 
virtue of w T ater-baptifm ; which was then com- 
monly accompanied with, and fometimes pre- 
ceded by, thefe extraordinary effufions of grace 
from the Co??iforter. " Come here (fay thefe 

(1) F liny the younger, Sueto: ius, Tacitus, &c. 

(2) Celfus, Julian, &c. 


66 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

unhappy Libertines) and fee the amazing efficacy 
of Chriffian-baptifm ! whoever is immergcd in 
this water, tho' before, he were an adulterer, a 
practtfed thief or murderer, rifes clean fed and 
purified from all his crimes ; and commences, *• 
on the inftantj a life of temperance, of juftice, 
and of charity." Thus did thefe impious (corn- 
ers endeavour to difguife their chagrin at the 
triumphs of the Spirit, over Vice and Paga- 
nism, by a farcaftic parody of the grateful 
exultations of the Chrifh'an Paftors. In truth, 
it was all they had to fay ; for, after this, 
they were reduced to feek a forced confo- 
lation, in the poffibility that fome natural 
cause had produced fo extraordinary a phse-- 

It may be worth while, therefore, to enquire 
whether any fuch caufe can be reafonably af- 

The enemies of our Faith. hope to find it in 
Fanaticism, and Superstiiton, the two 
P anions which the ftrong imprefiion of a new 
Religion begets, by it's hopes and fears, on 
the mind of man. 

Let us fee, whether either, or both of thefe, 
will account for fo fudden and lajllng a conver- 
fion, from vice and corruption, to a life of 
fan&ity and virtue. 

Superstition, which only depraves the 
Reafon without making any impremon on thofe 
faculties of the mind that mod: incline the Will 
to a new bias, never effects any conliderable 


C.I. c//^ Holy Spirit. 67 

change in the manners. It's utmofl force is 
but juft enough to perfuade us, that an . exact 
attention to the officious ceremonies of Reli- 
gion will be of force to fecnre us from the 
evils denounced againft vice and immorality ; 
or, at leaft, that fome tranfient acts of penitence, 
as the approaches of Death alarm us, will be 
iufficient to entitle us to the reward of a pure 
and wel'1-fpent Life. 

Fanaticism, indeed, fhakes and agitates 
the mind with greater violence- : and by infti- 
gating thofe faculties which moft influence the 
Will, frequently forces the Manners from their 
bent ; and fometimes effaces, or obfcures, the 
ftxongefr. impreflions of cuftom and nature. But 
this extraordinary fervour, tho' always violent, 
is rarely lading : never fo long as to turn the 
new Syfrem into a habit. So that when its rage 
fubfides, as it very foon does, but where it drives 
the unhappy victim into downright madnefs, the 
late imprefled bias on ,the Will keeps abating, 
till all the former habitudes recover their relaxed 

This is confirmed, not only by the genera! 
Hiftory of pad Fanaticifm, but likewife of the 
prefent, where we commonly fee the final ifTue 
of a fudden converfion to be, either a return to 
an open profligacy of manners, or a deep hypo- 
critical diilimulation of them. 

But now if we look into the hiftory of thofe 
early Converts, we (hall find that their Virtue, 
from the very firft impreffion of it, had all the 
eafe, fobriety, and moderation of a fettled habit: 


68 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

in this they perfevered ; and adding grace to 
grace? they went on, thro' life, in one conftant 
tenor, from the fir ft: baptifmal profeifion of their 
Faith by water, to the Iaft aA*ful confirmation 
of it in their blood. A dreadful period ! when 
Nature, by the very fhock, and in the Aruggle, 
it then fuffers, becomes enabled to diffipate all 
the fumes of menial? as it is frequently obfcrved 
to do, of corporeal intoxication. This it did, 
in the famous cafe of the virtuous Savana- 
rola of Florence; whofe fto r y is fo finely told 
by Guicciardini in the fecond and third books 
©f his Hiftory. This Man, a genuine Fanatic, 
if ever there were any, had aflumed the perfo- 
nage of a Prophet and infpired Preacher. A 
Character which he had long and fuccefsfully 
fuftained ; taken up amidft the diftrefTes and 
diftraclions of his Country, and, without doubt, 
occafioned by them. But lofing his credit in 
the new Revolutions of Italy, and being brought 
by his enemies to the flake, he died, after having 
difavowed his pretenfions, on the rack, he died, 
I fay, fullen and Alent, without any remaining 
fymptom of his former EnthuAafnu 

Nor could thisNudden converfion of the firft 
Chriftians be the efFecl: of mere rational co'h- 
viction. We know it to be morally impoflible 
for Reafon, however refined and ftrengthened 
by true Philofophy, to root out, on the inftam, 
the inveterate habits of Vice. All that this 
magifterial Faculty can do is, by conftantly re- 
peating her dictates, and Enforcing her conclu- 
sions, gradually to win over the Will ; till, by 
little and little, the mind accufloms itfelf to 
another fet of ideas, productive of other prac- 

C.I. «/^ Holy Spirit. 69 

3 and other habits. A work of time and 
la. our L as thofe good men have fufficiently ex- 
perienced, who, on a mere rational conviction, 
have attempted and perfected a change in their 
lives and manners. When therefore we fee the 
deeped impreffions of evil cuftom, and the 
darkeft {tains of corrupted nature thus fuddenly 
wiped out and effaced, To what muff, we 
afcribe fo total a reform but to the all-powerful 
operation of Grace ? 

But it may be objected, <c That there are 
inftances where Enthuiiafm alone hath kept 
men fteady in the practice of that virtue which 
a certain fanatic turn of mind firft: recommend- 
ed. " Doubtleis there have been many good 
people, who eicher thro' the weiknefs of their 
reafon, or the force of their more refined paf- 
fions, have been hurried into fanatic fervours, 
which have fupported and. confirmed them in 
their previous innocence of manners. But even 
here we have fufficient marks to diftinguifn thefe 
better forts of Emhufiafls, from fuch of the firft 
chriftian Confeffjrs, who were in the happy 
circumftanee of being found innocent, when 
they were led into the practice* of all virtue by 
the Holy Spirit: whofe office, as we have faid, 
conllfted in this gracious combination, To en- 
lighten the understanding, and to rectify the 
will. Now, that genial iplendour which con- 
ducted the firft Chriftians into the knowWe 
of all truth, fufficiently dife'ofed the divine 
Infpirer of all righteoujnefs. But we fee none 
of that Jhining light ordained and employe J to 
gild the good works of Grace, in tbe morals of 
innocent Enthufufts. On the contrary, we 


70 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

often find a more than ordinary ignorance ; 
and fometimes, even an incapacity of making 
rational conclufions. 


Thus was the firft part of the promife to fend 
the comforter, fulfilled. 

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THE other part, that he should abide 
with us for ever, comes next to be 
considered. We have obferved how this like- 
wife hath been verified by the fure depofite of 
the Spirit of Truth in facred Scripture. Yet 
this is not the whole of the completion. His 
prefent influence, together with the fruits of 
the paft, make the entire fubjedt of the pro- 
mife. Hence we conclude that he abides with 
■the Church for ever as well personally in his 
office of Comforter, in fupporting the Will, as 
virtually in his office of Enlightener, in di- 
recting the Understanding. 

The only queftion will be, Whether, from 
the primitive ages down to thefe latter times, 
he hath continued to exercife either part of his 
office in the fame extraordinary manner in which 
he entered upon ir, when his defcent on the 
Apoftles was accompanied with all the fenfible 
marks of the Divinity. 

And this, as it tends to the deciiion of more 
than one important queftion (not only the fuper- 


C. IT. ^/^ Holy Spirit. 71 

flitious claim of Church-miracles, but the 
fanatic pretences to divine influences) fhould 
be considered more at large. 

But here, I fliall venture to invert the method 
of thofe Divines, who, in their inquiries con- 
cerning God's Difpenfations, endeavour to prove 
thofe fuppofed fa&s, which they have precon- 
ceived, from the fitnefs which they pretend to 
have difcovered ; that is, having determined of 
whit is fit for God to do ; they, on the credit 
of this, maintain that he hath done it. On 
the contrary, I deem it more rational, as well 
as modeft, nrfl to enquire of Scripture what 
God hath done: and, when that is known, it 
will be then time enough to explain the fitnefs 
of his doings. 


Let us fee now, what holy Scripture hath 
deliveied concerning the duration of the 
extraordinary endowments of the Ho^y Spirit : 
Which, whether they relied in the Recipient, 
and manifelted themfelves in Grace and Knozulege 
tranfeending the powers of humanity 5 or 
whether they extended outwards, in the gifts 
of healing, to the relief of others' infirmities, 
may, with equal propriety, be called and be 
accounted miraculous. In the one cafe, 
the gifted peiion was paflive ; in the other, 

Now the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of Paul, 
has, I prefume, determined this queition for 
us, where, in the pafiage quoted before, on 
another occafion, he recapitulates the various 
prerogatives of the Apoftolic age. This decifive 


7£ On the Office and Operations B. II. 

paffage is in thefe words, — Charity never fail- 
£th : Lut ivhether there be prophecies, they Jhatt 
fail-, whether there be TONGUES, they Jlmll 
ccafe ; whether there be KNOW LEGE, it jhall va- 
nip) away (3). 

It was the Apoftle's purpofe, in this place, 
to exalt Charity above all other Chriitian 
Graces ; and therefore, having, in the pre- 
ceding words, fhewn its fuperiority to the reft, 
fromits qualities and attributes; he proceeds 
to urge the advantage ftill further, from the 

■confideration of its durability Charity 

never faileth, &c. 

The quefiion is, Whether the fuperior dura- 
tion, here afcribed to Charity over Prophecies, 
Tongues y and Knowlcge, refpecls only the pro- 
-grefs of the Gofpel here ; or whether it extends 
to the completion of it in it's triumphant ftate,_ 
hereafter ? The common opinion is, that 
it refpecls another life ; fupported, as fhould 
feem, by the Apcftle's inforcing his argument 
on this-obfervation, that now we fee thro' a glafs 
darkly ; but then face to face : now we know 
in part ; but then Jhall we iicw even as we ar£ 
hiowm (4) ; where the different condition of the 
two ftaies are plainly let in opposition to one 

But the other fenfe appears to, me to be the 
true ; and gives us the Apoftle's meaning to 
this effect. : " The virtue of Charity is to ac- 
company' the Ch:iitian Church throughout all 

(3) 1 Cor. xiii, 8. (4) 1 Cor. xiii. 12. 


C. II. j/^Holy Spirit, 73 

it's ftages here on earth ; whereas the gifts 
of prophecy, of ftrange tongues, of fupernatural 
knowlege, are only tranfitory graces, beftowed 
upon the Church during it's infirm and infant 
ftate, to manifeft it's divine birth, and to fup- 
port it againft the delufions and the Powers of 

As the words, confidered in this fenfe, convey 
a moll important Doctrine, viz. the ccjfation of 
the miraculous operations of the Holy Spirit after 
the ejiablijhment of the Chrifian faith, and as this 
perhaps is the only exprefs declaration of it, re- 
corded in facred Scripture, I fhall endeavour to 
fupportmy interpretation by conliderations drawn 
from it's coherence, in this fenfe, and in this 
fenfe only, with what precedes and follows in 
the courfe of the Apoftle's argument. 

The Church of Corinth, tho' abundantly en- 
riched with all divine Graces, would not yet 
fufFer the Holy Ghoft to do his perfeSi work y 
in the enlargement of the heart by univerfal 
benevolence ; but, elated with spiritual 
pride, (whofe property is not to bear with 
thofe who differ from us, and to defpife thofe 
who are beneath us in fublime attainments) 
fplit and divided themfelves into oppofite Sects 
and Factions : And this unhappy fituation not 
only rendering all their endowments vain and 
fruitlefs, but reflecting difhonour on the Giver 
of all good things, the Apoflle addreiTes himfelf 
to expofe their folly with the utmoft of his force 
and vigour of reafoning. 

E He 

74 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

He proves the fuperior excellence of Charity 
above all other fpiritual graces whatfoever, 
both in it's qualities and it's duration. 
The firfl three verfes (5) of his argument de- 
clare that the other graces without Charity, 
are neither of ufe nor ornament in the Chriftian 
life : The next four (6) fpecify the fuperior 
qualities of Charity : and the remaining fix (7) 
(of which, the words in queftion make the fir/1) (8) 
confider Charity under the fingle advantage 
of it's continuance, when all thofe other graces, 
■with which they were fo fooliihly elated, fhould 
be withdrawn. Charity never faileth : but whe- 
ther there be Prophecies, they jhall fail ; whether 
thire be Tongues, they jliall ceafe ; whether there 
he Knowlege, it Jhall vanijh aivay. In the next 
two verfes (9) he gives the reafon, For we know 
in part, and we prophecy in part ; but when that 
which is per feci is come, then that which is in part 
Jhall be done away. As much as to fay : When 
that Christian life, the lines of which are 
marked out by the Gofpel, fhall, by the vital 
powers of Charity on which it is erected, 
arrive to it's full vigour and maturity, then 
thofe temporary aids of the Holy Spirit (fuch as 
Tongues, Prophecy, and Knowlege, bellowed with 
a purpofe to fubdue the prejudices and fcepti- 
cifm of thofe without, and to fupport the weak- 
nefs and infirmities of thofe within \ and given 
too, but imperfectly, in proportion to the de- 
fects of the human Recipients) fhall, like the 
TcafFolding of a Palace now compleated, be 

(5) Ver. 1, 2, 3. . . (6) Ver, 4, 5, 6, 7. 
(7) Ver. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. (8) Ver. 8. 

(9) Ver. 9, 10. 

a. taken 

C. II. of the Holy Spirit. y$ 

•taken down and removed. And to &ew, that 
the lofs of thefe things will be no longer re- 
gretted, when the Church hath advanced from 
a itate of Infancy to Manhood, in the (ready 
exercife of the Christian life of Charity, 
he illuftrates this truth by an elegant umilitude. 
-±~TP~hen I was a Child, I [pake as a Child, I un- 
derjlood as a Child : but when I became a ;nan, I 
put away Childijh things ( I }. Yet no one will 
be fo abfurd to fuppofe that it was the Apoftle's 
intention to difgrace thefe fpiritual Gifts by (o 
low a comparifon ? It was the abuse of them 
only, (to which thefe Corinthians were fo 
prone) that was defigned to be corrected by 

But the Apoflle, having reprefented thefe 
extraordinary gifts to be as defective in them- 
felves as they are contemptible in their abufe, 
thought fit to add, that this defect did not pro- 
ceed from any penurious influx of the Holy Spirit, 
but from the narrownefs of the human reci- 
pient ; the paiTages to the Soul being fo clog- 
ged up with corporeal obftructions, as to be 
unable to convey to the Senfory any more than 
an oblique glimpfe of the sovereign good : 
But that, when we have fhaken off this mortal 
incumbrance, and regained the regions of light 
and liberty, we fliall then intuitively compre- 
hend the whole CEconomy both of Nature 
and of Grace. For now (fays he) we fee thro' a 
glafs darkly (2), but then face to face : Now I 

E 2 know 

( 1 ) Ver. 11. 

(2) BfoVofAE* ya.i> agli $ laowfetf l> ccmyy^yAi — the 

feeing thro*, or in a glafs, by an Enigma, feems, at ftrfi 


y 6 Oh the Office and Operations B. II. 

know in part, even as alfo I am known. And 
this obfervation, which evidently refpecls a 
future fate, led men to underftand the Apoftle 
as taking in another life, on which to found 
that fuperior duration which he gives to Charity, 
the fubject of his general argument. But they 
feem to have miftaken the drift of his remark 
concerning the defects in human knowlege, 
which was not made (as they fuppofe) for a 
direcl inforcement of the argument in the eighth 
verfe, Charity never faileth, &V. but was an oc- 
cafional anfwer to an objection, which naturally 
arofe from his management of one of the topics 
in the eleventh, when I was a Child, &c For 

view, an odd and incongruous expreffion, ilnce infor- 
mation by a fpeculum, of what kind foever, conveys 
the natural or real image of the reflected object, tho' 
that image be feen only faintly and obfcurely. But 
an Enigma is not the natural image of the object con- 
veyed, but an arbitrary mark which, under very fo- 
reign ideas, is myiterioufly made to iland for the na- 
tural image. Yet, if wea'tend carefully to the fub- 
ject, we mall find the expreiiion to be very elegant. 
The Apoftle is comparing the knowlege of fpiritual 
things, gained here t with that knowlege which we 
ihaH gain hereafter. Now all our present knowlege 
being conveyed thro' the Organs of Senfe, the Apoftle, 
by his h cti»iy(A&\k 9 would iniinuate, that our moit 
correct; and fublinae ideas of fpiritual things are no 
more the real images or fpiritual things, than Enig- 
mas, or myfterioufly contrived marks, are the natural 
or real images of thole things to which they are put 
as Signs. A ghf t or fpeculum, is therefore ufe 1 by 
the Apoflle, in this place, to (ignify the carport al or- 
gans ; and an Enigma to fignify the reprtfntatime 
knowlege, which the corporeal organs are only capable 
of producing, when employed about fpiritual things. 


C. II. cf the Holy Spirit. 77 

it might have been objected to the Apoftle, 
tC By this fimilitude, you feem to reprefent the 
Gofpel as firft fpringing up in an infant-ftate, 
and needing time and culture to biin^; it to 
perfection." tc No, (replies the Apoftle;) thi» 
[aft Law of God, like the firft created Man> 
came perfect from the hands of its almighty 
framer. But man, to whom it was given, by 
reafon of the imperfections of his prefent ftare, 
arrived only by degrees to the more perfect 
knowlege and practice of it : and to this gra- 
dual advance, from obfcure to intuitive fcience, 
does the fimilitude refer." This, I fay, feems 
to have been the fource of the error : And yet 
the Apoftle's concluding obfervation, was fuf- 
ficient to have fet thefe critics right, and to 
have (hewn them, that the fuperior duration of 
Charity referred to the prefent life only. — 
i^NOW abideth Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
thefe three ', but the greatejl of thefe is Charity, 
Which is in effect to fay, £ You may now 
perhaps object, that this quality of fuperior du- 
ration is not peculiar or confined to Charity, but 
belongs equally to thofe two other Chriftian. 
graces, Faith and Hope, which travel thro' with 
the Church of God, and continue to fupport 
and adoi n it, in all its revolutions here on earth, 
when Prophecy, Tongues, and Knowlege (hall long 
have failed and ceafcd, and vanijhed aivay : So 
that, with regard to duration, Faith and 
Hope (hare with Charity, in this advantage over 
the other tranfient endowments of the Spirit." 
K I agree, replies the Apoftle, thus far to the 
Objection, that they are all three joint fharers 
in this prerogative ; but ftill, 1 fay, the 
greatest of these is Charity ; And in 

E 3 the 

78 Oh the Office and Operations B. IT, 

the beginning of my argument (fays he) I have 
given the reafon, in the obfervation, that 7 ho' 
I have all faith fo that I could remove moun- 
tains, and tho' I give niy body to be burned [in 
fii re and certain hope of a refur reel ion] and 
have no Charity, it profiteth me nothing. The 
reafon is on account of the fuperior qualities of 
Charity : it hath thofe which Faith and Hope 
have not, foe feeketh not her own, C5V. as well 
as thofe which Faith and Hope have, and are 
moft effential to them, for fie believeth all 
' things, fhe hopeth all things." It is thus the 
Apoftle anfwerg concealed objections ; and at 
the fame time inftru&s the unwary reader with 
what caution and application he fhould come to 
the ftudy of that profound reafoning with which 
all his Epiftles abound. 

But now, fuppofe the fuperior duration of 
Charity to take in the confederation of another 
life, and the Apoftle never could have faid, 
that Faith and Hope had. the prerogative of re- 
maining, or of having an equal abiding with 
Charity, when both faith and hope will be fwalr 
lowed up in fruition f . 


f The late Bifhop of London, Dr. Sherlock, in 
his firft volume of Sermons, contends for the common 
interpretation of this paffage ; and to remove the 
difficulty of faith and hope's being faid to abide with 
Charity in a future ftate, argues thus, — " Charity and 
" univerfal benevolence is the very grace and orna- 
" ment of Heaven. Nor zzxl faith and hope ever be 
" parted from true Religion; for there is no 
" Being fo great as not to depend on faith i?i God, 
*' in his power and wifdom, or to be above hoping any 

'*■ thins 

C. 1L ^///^ Holy Spiri t. jg- 

From the whole, then, of this account of 
Charity, it evidently appears, that the Mira- 

as well thofe which relieved corporeal, as thofe 
which administered aid to fpiritual, diitrefles : 
and confequently, that Superstition and 
Fanaticism equally laboured under the wound 
inflicted on them by the hand of the Apoftle, 
when he made this virtual Declaration of the 
total withdrawing of thofe Powers, 

Here efpeciallv, all the fuper/litious and fana- 
tical pretences of the Church of Rome, to fuper- 
natural powers, are detected and expofed ; not 
only the gift of infallibility, which com- 
prehends all Myfleries and all • Kmivlege ; and the 
work of Transubstantiation, which com- 
prehends all Faith, not to remove, but to make, 
mountains', but likewife all the Legendary 
miracles of their Hierarchy in general, and of 
their canonized Saints in particular. In which 

" thing from his good tie fs and benevolence." p. 377. 
Here St. Paul is fpeaking of one thing, and the 
Bifhop, as ufual, of another. The Apoftle's faitb 
and hope are christian graces; that is, Faith in 
the Meffiab the Redeemer, and Hope in the RefurreSliou 
of the dead) both of which, hereafter will* be, as is 
faid above, fwallowed up in fruition. The Preacher, 
in order to fupport a point, puts the change upon us, 
and, for the Apoftle's faith and hope, gives us his 
own ; a faith and hope at large, and in the air : fuch 
as will abide indeed, while we have any being, but 
fuch as, on the fame principles of interpretation, 
will give abidance to Knoivlege likewife, altho* the 
(acred Writer .exprefly tells us, it is to <vanijb away. 

E 4 pre- 

8o On the Office and Operations B. 25. 

pretences, to obferve it by the way, the blunder 
ieems to be as glaring as the impoflure : St. 
Paul reckons the state of Christian per- 
fection not to be the state of Miracles, 
but that of Charity. For we know in part 
(fays he) and we prophecy in part : but whin 
that which is perfect is come, then that 
which is in part Jhall be done away (3). What 
is that perfcti thing which was to come ; and 
which the Corinthians of this time fo much 
wanted ? What but that which he had fo highly 
extolled, the State of Charity ? So that as 
this advanced, the imperfect ftate of Miracles 
was to recede, and be done away. Yet in the 
Church of Rome, the ftate of Saintship, 
which is their Ji ate of perfection , is fupported by 
Miracles ; while St. Paul's fate of perfection , 
that of Charity, was fo little acknowleged or 
underflood, that one of their greatefl Saints, and 
mofl abounding in miraculous endowments, was 
St. Dominic, the founder of the Inquisition. 
Indeed if the Apoftle's reafoning would bear 
this inference, that Miracles were not only to 
remain till Charity had done its perfect work y 
but till it had perfectly done its work, I know 
of no Church that has a better claim to the 
continued exercife of thofe Powers than the 
Church of Rome. But whatfoever need (he 
may have, ihe fails fo wretchedly in her moft 
pompous exhibitions of them, that we may 
well regard romish Miracles in the loweft 
rank of thofe childijh things, which, the Apoftle 
fays, men and churches fhould be afhamed of, 
and put away, when they come to years of 

(3) Ver. 9, 10. 


G. HI. «///^ Holy Spirit, Sx 


HAVING now eftablifhed the -Fact, 
that miraculous gifts were to pafs away 
with the firft ages of th« Church, we may fafely 
and reafonably inquire into the fitness of 


There appears to have been two caufes of. 
the extraordinary operations of the Holy Spirit ; 
The manifeftation of his Million as it was pre- 
dicted, and the comfort and inftrucTion of a fufW 
fering Church, as it was promifed.. 

To the firft, we have obferved, that in tfTe 
early propagation of our holy Faith, it was fit 
the Sanctifier, as well as the Redeemer-, 
fhould fupport his prefenee by Miracles. But 
the fame confederations which fhew this fitnefs 
to be no more, in the one cafe, fhew it likewife 
in the other. For the Divine original of 
our Faith being once eftablifhed, it fupports it- 
felf ever after on the fame credibility of human, 
teftimony, which all other truths do, that are 
founded on facts, 

i. As to his extraordinary operations for the 
comfort and inftruction of the Church, we may 
obferve that, on his firft defcent upon the Apo- 
ftles, he found their minds rude and uninformed ; 
ftrangers to all celeftial knowlege ; prejudiced, 
in favour of a carnal Law-^ and -utteily averfe to 
the genius- of the evcrlafting Gofpd. The minds 
of thefe he illuminated; and, by degrees, led 

E 5 iatou 

$2 On the Office and Operations B. If. 

into all the truths necefTary for the Profeflbrs of 
the Faith to know, or for the Propagators of 
it to teach. For a rule of Faith not being yet 
eompofed, fome extraordinary infufion of his 
Virtue was ftill necenary, both to regulate the 
Faith of him who received it, and to conftitute 
the Authority of him who was to communicate, 
of what he had received, to others. But when 
now the Rule of faith was perfected in an au- 
thentic collection of the Apoftolic Writings, 
part of this office was transferred upon the 
Sacred Canon (4) ; and his enlightening grace 
was not to be expected in fo abundant an ef- 
fufion as would make the Recipients infallible 
Guides to others, but only in a meafure adequate 
to the direction of themfelves. 

Thefe reafons for the change of CEconomy, 
in the difpenfations of the Holy Spirit, are fuf- 
ficient to difcredit the falfe confidence of modern 
Fanatics, who pretend to as high a degree of 
diVine communications as if no fuch Rule of 
Faith was in being ; or at leaft, as if that Rule 
was fo obfcure as to need the further af&ftance of 
the Holy Spirit to explain his own meaning ; 
or fo imperfect as to need a new infpiration ta 
fupply its wants. — But thefe men read the 
Hiftory of the difpenfations to the iirft Propa- 
gators of our holy Faith : They look with ad* 
miration on the privileges and powers conferred 
©n thofe chofen Inftraments : their imagination 
grows heated : they forget the difference between 
the prefect and the paft CEconomy of things : 
they feem to feel the impremons they hear of \ 

(4) See p. a3. 


CUT. of the H.oly Spirit. $$ 

and they afTume the airs, and mimic the Autho- 
rity of Prophets and Apoftles. 

2. Again, the nature and genius of the Gof- 
pel were fo averfe to all the religious Inftitutions 
of the World, that the whole ftrength of human 
prejudices was fet in oppofition to it. To over- 
* come the obftinacy and violence of thefe preju- 
dices, nothing lefs than the power of the Holy 
One was fufficient. He did the work of Man's 
Converfion ; and reconciled an unbelieving world 
to God. At prefent, whatever there may be 
remaining of the bias of prejudice, (as fuch will 
mix itfelf even with our beft conclufions) it . 
draws the other way. So much then of his tafk 
was finifhed ; and the Faith, from thenceforth, 
had a favourable hearing. Indeed, were we to 
make our eftimate of the prefent State of the re- 
ligious World from the Journals of modern Fa- 
natics, we mould be tempted (till to think our- 
felves in a land of Pagans, with all their pre- 
judices full blown upon them. For the account 
they give us of their provincial Miflions always 
runs on in fuch drains as thefe — The name of 
Jefus is preached up in this City ; the glad tidings 
of the Gofpel conveyed to that Hamlet ; a new 
light Jftrings up in a land of darlcnefs ; and life 
and jmmor tali 'ty is now firft offered to thofe who . 
fit in the Jhadow of death. 

3. A further reafon for the abatement of the 
influences of the fupporting fpirit of Grace is the 
peace and fecurity of the Church. There was 
a time when the Powers of this world were - 
combined together for its deftruclion. At fuch 
2 period;, nothing but fuperior aid from Above 

E § could. 

$4 On the Office mid Operations B. II. 

could fupport humanity in fuftaining fo great a 
conflict as that which the holy Martyrs en- 
countered with joy and rapture ; the horrors 
of death in torment. But now the profemon - 
of the Chriftian Faith is attended with eafe and 
honour ; and the conviction, which the weight 
of human teftimony, and the conclufions of r^afon afford us, of its truth, is abun- 
dantly fufficient to fupport us in our religious 

But the obftinate and continued claims of 
Fanatics in all Ages, to this primitive abun- 
dance of the Spirit may make it expedient to 
examine their pretenfions yet more minutely 
and exactly. And to this inquiry, Scripture 
itfelf, which forefaw and foretold the evil, di- 
rects us to the remedy, where it exhorts us 
to try the Spirits. Beloved, believe not 
every fpirit, (fays St. John) but try the Spirits 
whether they be of God \ becaufe many falfe Prophets 
are gone out into the World (5). At the time this 
precept was given there was a more than ordi- 
nary attention requifite to guard againft the de- 
lufions of falfe Prophets : For, the abundant 
effufion of the Holy Spirit on the rifing Re- 
ligion gave encouragement to Impoftors to 
counterfeit, and a handle to Enthufiafts to mir- 
mic, all that was equivocal in its operations. 

Hence we find that, amongft the various en- 
dowments of the primitive Church, fome of 
which were to correct Gainfayers, and others 
to edify Believers, there was one of the mixed 

(5) 1 John \v. 6. 


C. III. of the Holy Spirit. %* 

kind, of fpecial ufe to fupport the dignity, and 
to vindicate the divine original of all the reft ; 
by detecting Impoftors, v/ho crept in amongfc 
*the truly infpired : and this, we have feen, the 
Apoftle called, the discerning of Spirits. 
With this Gift, Peter detected Simon the Ma* 
gician ; and with this, Paul confounded Elymas 
the Sorcerer. 

But when extraordinary infpiration itfelf had 
ceafed, the falfe pretence to it, for fome wife 
ends of Providence, to us unknown, ftill con- 
tinued to infect the Church with its impious 
Mummeries; and while that Virtue, (the dif- 
cerning of Spirits) whofe office was to detect 
them, was withdrawn with the reft of the in- 
fpired graces > the Command to try the Spirits 
whether they were of God ftill remained in force. 
But to try without a faculty of difcerning would' 
be a dangerous, or at heft, an impertinent 

Now from this unreafbnable talk we are de- 
livered by the gracious providence of the Holy 
Spirit ; who provided that thofe whom he had 
endowed with the gift of difcerning of Spirits 
fhculd leave behind them fome Rules whereby 
the Faithful of all ages might be qualified to try 
the Spirits, and be thereby enabled to defend 
themfelves from the feduction of error and im- 
pofture : becaufe, fays the advice, many falfe 
Prophets are gone out into the TVorld. 

If th.e falfe Prophet- pretend to a character 
foretold^ then we are bid to fearth the Scrip- 

~tnres y 

$6 On the Office and Operations B. II, 

tures (6), to fee if they tejiify of fuch a Cha- 
racter. Thus the Bereans are efleemed of more 
noble and generous fentiments than their Neigh- 
bours, for this very point of wifdom, the fear ch» 
ing the Scriptures daily to find whether thofe things 
were Jo (7). 

But if the falfe Prophet pretend only to fome 
extraordinary meafure of the Spirit, then we are 
directed to try that Spirit by applying to it the 
following Characters of real infpiration. — The 
Wisdom that is from above is first 
pure ; then peaceable, gentle and 
easy to be intreated, full of mercy 
and good fruits, without partiality, 
and without hypocrisy (8). 

It is worthy our notice, that, in this rule or 

direction for the trial of Spirits, the marks of real 

infpiration are to be applied only negatively : 

That is, we may fafely pronounce, that the man 

in whom they are not found, hath not the Spirit 

of God, or the wifdom which is from above : while 

on the other hand, we are not to conclude ; that 

he in whom any or all of them are found, is, 

from this circumftance alone, endowed with 

any extraordinary meafure of the Holy Spirit ; 

fince they may be no other than thofe ordinary 

graces which arife from the knowlege of, and 

obedience to, God's Will as contained in fa- 

cred Scripture. So that altho' fuch a one may 

be truly faid to be pofleiled of the wifdom which 

(6) John V. 39. Search the Scriptures, for they 
tejiify of me. (7) A&s xvii. II. 

(8) James iii. 17. 


C. III. c/^Holy Spirit. 87 

is from above, it is not that which comes to 
him by way of infpiration, the thing here in 

Thus we fee, the Apoftle's Rule carries, m 
its very nature, the evidence of its divine ori- 
ginal : for the afliftance wanted in the trial of 
Spirits, fince thefe extraordinary powers were 
withdrawn, was only fuch a fet of Marks as 
was rather fitted to detect Impoftors, than to 
allure the truth of a Character not now to be 

This the Reader fhould have in mind, when 
we bring him to apply thefe marks to the fea- 
tures of modern Fanaticifm ; efpecially as they 
are feen in the famed^eader of the Metho- 
dists, Mr. John Wesley ; and not feen 
neither, as Sancho Pancho faw his miftrefs, 
by hearfay, (which indeed has been too much 
the cuftom, in the reprefentations of this tran- 
fcendant man) but as he appears in perfon in 
his own Journals : For by thofe indelible 
marks alone, there traced out, and by his own 
pen, I purpofe to try, in him, chiefly, the 
Spirits of all modern Pretenders to fuper- 
natural Powers, 


f . r 

fc8 On the Office and Operations B. IJ* 


AN D that I may not be fufpected of com- 
bating a Fantom, it will be proper firft 
of all to mew that this extraordinary man hath, 
in fact, laid claim to almoft every Apoftolic gift 
and grace ; and in as full and ample a meafure 
as they were poffefTed of old. 

But as a good Actor will firft prepare his 
Scene, he hath carried us back, by the magic 
of his dramatic powers, into all the wonders of 
the primitive Times ; where we meet the Devil, 
unchained and let loofe, to exert his laft efforts 
againft the new Religion : As, on the other 
hand, to oppofe to his infernal rage, we fee, 
with the fame evidence, an abundant effuiion 
of ths Holy Spirit poured out upon this rifmg 
Church. And now, every thing being well 
prepared, Both thefe Powers ftand .ready to act 
their parts, by the time our Apoflle thinks fit. 
to appear upon the Stage. 

His Journals are full of the. Alarms which 
he gave the Devil, and of the mortifications 
which the Devil gave him. — " The Devil (fays> 
<c he) knew his kingdom fhook, and therefore 
*' ftirred up his fervants to ring bells, and make. 

all the noife they could (i)." — " The Devil's 

Children fought valiantly for their Matter,. 

that his kingdom mould not be deftroyed : 

(i) Jo urn. from Nov. i, 1739, t0 Sept. 3, 1741. 
* 37 > 

" And 

CIV. ^//^ Holy Spirit. 89 

u And many ftones fell on my right hand and 
" on my left (2)." " Some or other of the 
" Children of Belial had laboured to difturb us 
" feveral nights before (3)." Nay, fo accuf- 
tomed was he to thcfe conflicts with the Evil 
One, that it was even matter of furprife to him, 
to find the Enemy, once upon a time, refer ved 
and ftitl\ till he reflected, that it was becaufe 
his Goods were in peace. " I preached — as yet. I 
p have found only one perfon amongft them, 
" who knew the love of God, before my Bro- 
" ther came. No wonder the Devil was fo 
f* flill : for his Goods were in peace (4)." Ano- 
ther inftance which he gives us, of this peace- 
able convention between his Congregation and 
the Devil, is in one of his northern excurfions. 
" Wed. 29, I preached at Durham to a quiet, 
" stupid Congregation (5)." But this never 
laded long wherever he came ; for he had always 
the fkill of curing this fpiritual lethargy by a 

When the Devil had fet the mob on work, 
he then, like other Politicians, retired to-better 
company ; fuch as the two Mr. Wefleys and 
the Saints. But, as this lad and folemn meet- 
ing was not to his tafte, he tried to buffet 
them into a better humour. " I was a little 
" furprifed at fome who were buffeted of Satan 
" in an unufual manner by fuch a fpirit of 

(2) D°. p. 82. (3) D«. 31. 

(4) Joum. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 29. 

(5) Journ. from July 20, 175P, to Oft. 28,. 1754. 
p. 1 5. 

■** laughter 

$0 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

*' laughter — I knew the fame thing ten or eleven 
" years ago. Part of Sunday my Brother and 
c< I then ufed to fpend in walking in the mea- 
" dows and finging Pfalms, But one day, juft 
M as we were beginning to fing, he burft out 
M into a loud laughter. I began to be very 
** angry, and prefently after to laugh as loud as 
** he. — We were ready to tear ourfelves in 
" pieces, but were forced to go home without 
4i iinging another line (6)." From the Head, 
thefe bufferings (which, not to overload the- 
Devil, 1 will, for once, venture to call hyjlerical) 
defcended, and were plentifully beftowed, upon 
the Members. And, " one evening (fays he) 
" fuch a Spirit of laughter was amongft us, 
*' that many were much offended. But the atten- 

" tion of all was foon fixed upon poor L a 

" S ; one fo violently and varioufly torn 

" of the Evil One did I never fee before. 
** Sometimes fhe laughed, then broke out into-^ 
46 curfing and blafpheming, Sec. (7)" On 
this occafion, he relates a fact, which, tho' He 
feems not to have turned to a proper ufe, the 
fober and attentive Reader may. — u Our out- 
" ward trials indeed were now removed, and' 
<c peace was in all our borders. But fo much< 
u the more did inward trials abound, and if one 
M member fuff ere d 9 all the members fuff ere d with 
** it. So ftrange a sympathy did I never 
" obferve before :• Whatever confiderable temp- 
*J tation fell on any one, unaccountably fpread- 
" ing itfelf to the reft. So that exceeding few 

(6) Journ, from Nov. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 174T. 

$'37* (7) Ibid. p. 3 8 - 

" were 

C/IV". of the Holy Spirit. ^jc 

•* were able to efcape it (8)." In thefe va- 
rious ftruggles, the Devil was at length tired 
out ; and Mr. Wefley forces him into elofe 
quarters ; to betake himfelf to the bodies ot* 
friend or foe indifferently, juft as he could 
find opportunity or entertainment. And now 
comes on the mining part of our Apoftle's ex- 
ploits, the driving him out, in the face of the 
whole Congregation, by exorcisms and fpi- 
r,itual Ejeclments. 

But if Evil thus abounded, Grace did much 
more abound in this memorable ./Era, when Mr. 
John Wefley firft went out upon his Miffion. 
The Spirit overcame all refiitance, broke down 
all the itrong-holds of 6in> and, what Mr, 
Wefley was much more fet againft, of insensi- 
bility. " So many living WitnefTes (fays 

" he) hath God given, that his hand is still 
*< ' Jir etched out to heal, and that figns and 
cc wonders are even now wrought by his holy. 
«* Child, Jefus (9)." For, out of the mouths of 
babes andfucklings, it once again, as of old, per- 
fected praife ; the young men faw vijions, and the. 
old men dreamed dreams. 

" Amongft the poor Colliers at Placey, John 
cc Lane, then nine or ten years old, was one of 
" the firft who found peace with God. From 
that hour he continued to walk day and 
night in the light of his countenance. I. 



(8) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741. 

P- 37. 

(9) Journ. from Aug, 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 


" faw 

92 On the Office and Operations B. I'L 

" faw him laft year longing to be with Chrifr, 
cc &c. (i)" — " I enquired more particularly of 
" Mrs. N. concerning her little Son. She laid, 
vt He appeared to have a continual fear of God, 
c< and an awful fenfe of his prefence ; that lie 
tc frequently went to prayers byhirnfelf: that 
** he had an exceeding great tendernefs of 
**, being fenfible of the lead fin. 
" — A few days fmce he broke out into prayers 
" aloud, and then faid, Mamma, I (hall go to 
" Heaven foon — and you will go there too, 
" and my Pappa ; but you will not go fofoon." 
On which Mr. Wefley very judicioufly obferves, 
" When the Holy Ghoft teaches, is there any 
*' delay in learning? This Chiid was then juft 
46 three years old. A year or two after he died 
" in peace (2)." 

«— {C I heard (fays he) a furpriitng account 
<c of a young woman of Manchefter, which I 
cc received from her own mouth. She faid, I 
" was fitting in the houfe while one read the 
<{ paflionhymn. I had always gone to Church,. 
« c and had never heard any of the methodift 
*' preachers. Qn a fudden I faw our Saviour 
** on the Crofs, as plain as if it had been with. 
c< my bodily eyes. — Then I faw as it were 
** Heaven open, and God fitting upon his 
11 Throne. And I faw a large book, in which. 

all my fins were written, &c. (3)" But 


(i) Journ. from July 20, 1750, to Oih 28, 1754. 
p. 18. 

(2) Journ. from O&. 27, 1734, to Nov. 17, 17^6.. 

(3) Journ. from Novemb. 25, 1746, to July 20, 

ns°' P- 54- 


C IV. «///^ Holy Spirit. 93 

this was nothing to the vifion of S . T , 

(a girl of ten years and three quarters old) which 
takes up between three and four pages in the 
telling ; (o that partly for the length, but prin- 
cipally becaufe I fufpecl: Mr. J. Wefley intended 
it only for the folace of his babes and fucklings, 
for whofe ufe this difcourfe is not intended, I 
mall only point to the Journal where the 
wonderful adventure is related (4). For the 
fame reafon I fliall pafs over many of the Dreams 
and Vifions, 

All thefe wonders were not worked for no- 
thing. The Spirit of the Lord was gone out, 
and it did not flop till it had manifefted itfelf, 
in the la ft efforts of its power, the new 
birth : But it went not out, as of old, in the 
/?/'//, fmall voice, but in ftorms and tempefts, 
in cries and extacies, in tumults and confufion ; 
and when Nature was exhaufted, then Grace 
had done its work. But he tells us, his corre- 
fpondents hearing of this grange affair, enquired 
of him how can thefe things be ? They cautioned 
him not to regard vijions or dreams , or to fancy 
people had remifjion of fins becaufe of their cries or 
tears, Sec. To this, he tells us, he anfwered, 
44 You deny that God does now work thefe 
" effects : at ieaft that he works them in this 
manner. I affirm both. I have {ecn very 
many perfons changed in a moment from 
the fpirit of fear, horror, defpair, to the 
" fpirit of love, joy and peace. — What I have 
to- fay touching vijions or dreams is this : I 




(4) Journ. from C&+ 27, 1743, to Nov. 17, 1716. 
p. 141, &fea m 

" know 

94 On the Office and Operations B. II, 

4C know feveral perfons in whom this great 
'" change was wrought in a dream, or during 
"" a flrong reprefentation to the eye of their 
*' mind, of Chrift either on the Crofs or in 
«■ glory ( 5 >." 

But here unhappily, as is ufual in thefe 
matters, the fymptoms of Grace and of Perdition 
were fo interwoven and confounded with one 
another, that our Apoftle himfelf is fometimes 
at a lofs to diftinguifh the hand ; and to de- 
termine, with certainty, who had the largeft 
ihare in the Work, God or the Devil ; 
infomuch that a Manichean might have greatly 
availed himfelf of this untoward circumftance. 
Mr. J. Wefley had been grieved, and the 
Spirit of God had been grieved likewife, at 
the fcandal given by fome of his own flock 
who " blafphemed the work, and imputed it 
* c either to Nature or the force of Imagination 
* 6 and Animal-fpirits, or even to the delufion 
of the Devil (6)." — " Many (fays he) were 
deeply convinced ; but none were delivered 
<c from that painful conviction. The Children 
** ca?ne to tlie birth, but there was not Jlrength 
<(f to bring FORTH. I fear we have grieved 
46 the Spirit of the jealous God by queftioning 
*« his work (7)." Yet thefe pangs of the 
new birth becoming, on certain occafions, 
more violent, and more general than ordinary, 
and even found to be taking and infectious, — » 
the Apoitle himfelf was daggered and feemed 

(5) Journ. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov, 1, 1739.. 
p. 4^> 49- jfi) Ibid. p. 59. 

,7) Ibid. p. 68. 


C. IV. cf the Holy Spirit. c, 5 

ready to recant. " Thefe fymptoms I can no 
" more impute to any natural caufe than to 
** the Spirit of God. I make no doubt it was 
w Satan tearing them as they were coming to 
<c Chriir. And hence proceeded thofe grievous 
" cries, whereby he might defign both to dif- 
<c credit the work of God, and to affright fear- 
" fill people from hearing that word whereby 
" their Souls might be faved (8)." But fince 
thefe Symptoms were univerfal and infeparable 
from the new birth ^ I rather think, and I will 
venture to fay, as it is only raifing the Cata- 
chrefis one ilep higher, that the Devil was here 
only m the office of Man-Midwife to the new 
birth. And Mr. Wefley himfelf, on fecond 
thoughts, feems not much averfe to this con- 
ceit, as appears from the following relation. — 
" I vifited (fays he) a poor old woman a mile 
or two from the Town. Her trials had been 
uncommon ; inexpreffible agonies of mind 
joined with all forts of bodily pain, not (it 
feemed) from any natural caufe, but the 
direft operation of Satan : Her joys were now 
as uncommon ; fhe had little time to fleep, 
"" having for feveral months laft pall: feen, as 
it were, the unclouded face of Gcd^ and praifed 
him day and night (9)." 




(8) Journ. from Sept. 3, 174^ to OR. 27, 1743. 

(9) Jounu from July 20, 1749, to Ott. 30, 175 1. 
p. 60. 


96 On the Office and Operations B. II. 


SUCH was the Evangelic state of 
things when Mr. J. Wefley firft entered on 
this Miniftry : who, feeing himfelf furrounded 
with fubjecls fo harmoniously difpofed to obey 
the touch of a mafter, thus triumphantly ex- 
ults : — " Full as I was, I knew not where 
** to begin, till my Teftament opened on thefe 
<c words, / came not to call the Righteous, hut 
<£ Sinners, to repentance : In applying which, 
<c my foul was fo enlarged, that methought I 
<c could have cried out (in another fenfe than 
xc poor, vain Archimedes) Give me where to 
" Jiandy and I will shake the Earth ( 1)." 
A bravado that would have fuited Ignatius 
Loiola in his firft flippery extacies in the mire, 
as the World has fufficiently experienced. How 
it became -our adventurer, on his firft fettins: 
out, the World may be brought to know in. 
good time. 

Here then was a Scene well prepared for a 
good Ac~tor, and excellently fitted up for the 
part he was difpofed to play, which, as we have 
fatd, was that of an Apostle. And, to do 
him juftice, he hath exhibited it with fuch 
fplendor, that, of all the Apoftolic gifts and 
graces, there is but one with which we find 
him not adorned, viz. the gift of tongues ; and 
as to this, the learned Mr. J. Wefley may 
reply with the learned Paul, he already /poke 

(1) Joura. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739- 

^ with 

C. V. «/^ Holy Spirit. 97 

with tongues more than thy all. For the reft, 
whether they were prophefy, — fupernatural aids 
in his mini/try, — healing the Jick^ — cajlhig out 
D evils y — or injli3ing divine vengeance on his op" 
pofers^ he had them all, as we underfbnd by 
his journals > in abundant meafure. 

We will begin (as is fitting) where he him- 
felf began, with declaring his Mission. « A 
•* multitude of people got together in the houfe, 
" yard, and ftreet, far more than my voice 
" could reach. I cryed aloud to as many of 
" them as could hear, All things are ready : 
** come ye to the ?narriage. I then delivered 
" my Message. So before ten we took 
" boat, &c. (2)" Yet, like Mofes, he was at 
firft a little mutinous. — u From the directions 
" I received from God this day, touching an 
* c affair of the greateft importance, I could 
cc not but obferve the miftake of thofe who 
*' afTert, cc God will not anfwer your prayer 
" unlefs your heart be wholly refigned to his 
" will." My heart zvas mt entirely refigned 
" to his will. Yet I know and am afTured, he 
" heard mv voice, and fent forth his light and 
« his truth (3)." ' 

Prophesy or Speaking by the Spirit, the firfl 
and mod eiTential quality of a divine Meflenger, 
he had at will. <c We had (fays he) a watch 
" night at the Chapel : being weak in body, 

(2) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 29. 

(3) Journ. from his embarking for Georgia, to his 
return to London, p. 37. 

F « I 

98 On the Office and Operations B. II, 

" I was afraid I could not go through it. But 
" the longer I fpoke, the more ltrength I had. 
" Infomuch that at twelve a clock all my 
<c wearinefs and weaknefs was gone ; and I 
** was as one refrefhed with wine (4)." — " Se- 
" veral of the Gentry defired to flay at the 
€i meeting of the Society, to whom I explained 
" the nature of inward Religion, words flowing 
" upon me fajler than I could /peak (5)." — <c I 
" intended to have given an exhortation to the 
" Society. But as foon as we met, the Spirit 
tc of Supplication fell upon us, fo that I could hard- 
4< ly do any thing but pray and give thanks, till it 
" was time for us to part (6)." But the Spirit 
foon came down in a torrent that took away all 
utterance. — " In the evening the word of God 
" was indeed quick and powerful. Afterwards, 
" I defired the men as well as women to meet. 
** But I could not fpeak to them. The Spirit of 
il prayer was fo poured upon us all, that we could 
only fpeak to God (7)." 


The exterior afliftances in his Miniftry were 

no lefs fignal than the interior. Many were 

*' feated on a large Wall adjoining, which be- 
" ing built of Ioofe (tones, in the middle of 
** the Sermon all fell down at once. / never 
" jaw, heard, nor read of juch a thing before, 

(4) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 32. 

(;) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, toO£i. 27, 1743. 
p. 87. 

(6) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 84^. 

(7) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, to Oct. 27, 1743. 
p. 104. 

" The 

C.'V. of the Holy Spiri t. 99 

" The whole wall and the pcrfons fitting upon 
<{ it funk down together, none of them fcream- 
<c ing out, and very few altering their pofture- 
"And not one was hurt at all; but they ap- 
" peared fitting at the bottom, juft as they fat 
" at the top. Nor was there any interruption 
" either of my fpeaking, or of the attention of 
" the hearers (8)." The next rifes in due 
gradation. An unruly mob became of a fudden 
as harmlefs as the Jlones. Tho', had they met, 
and oppofed the miniftry, together, one does 
not know what might have happened. 
" The mob had juft broke open the door, when 
" we came into the lower room ; and exactly 
" while they burft in at one door, we walked 
" out at the other. Nor did one man take any 
" notice of us, tho' we were within five yards 
" of each other (9)." Without doubt they 
were (truck blind \ tho*, in imitation of the mo- 
deft filence of the Evangel ift, who relates the 
like adventure of the blefled Jems, he forbears 
the exprefs mention of this ftupendous miracle 

 The next and more powerful operation 

was on his female friends; and thefe, he as 

fairly ftruck dumb. " The whole multitude 

" were filent, while I was fpeaking. Not a 
" whifper was heard. But the moment I had 
done, the Chain fell off their tongues, I was 
really furprized. Surely never was fuch a 
cackling made on the banks of Cayfter, or 
the Common of Sedgmoor (1)." And to 



(8) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 

P 2 3- 

(9) Ibid. p. 57. 

(?) Ibid. p. 96. 

F 2 chain 

100 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

chain up the tongues of five hundred cackling gof- 
fips, he held, and with great reafon, an exploit 
worth recording. Indeed he appears to have 
taken the moft effectual method with them, that 
is, to out-clamour them : For thus he meafures 
out his own Stentoronic voice. — M Obferving 
<c that feveral fat on the fide of the oppofitehill, 
<c I afterwards defired one to meafure the 
** ground ; and we found it was fevenfcore 
<c yards from the place where I had flood. 
4C Yet the people there heard perfectly well. I 
*' did not think any human voice could have 
* c reached fo far (2)." And as, on proper oc- 
cafions, every courteous Knight-Errant has 
condefcended to let his horfe into a mare of the 
adventure, fo our Spiritual Martialift, unwil- 
ling to break (o good a cuftom, has divided 
(as St. Martin did his cloak with the Beggar) 
the next exploit of price with his BeanV. " My 
* c horfe was exceeding lame — we could not 
<c difcern what it was that was amifs, and yet 
« c he could fcarce fet. his foot on the ground.— 
cc My head ached more than it had done for fome 
« c months (what I here aver is the naked fact ; 
** let every man account for it as he fees good). 
«* I then thought, " Cannot God heal either 
€c man or beaft, by any means, or without any f 
* c Immediately my wearinefs and head-ache 
<c ceafed, and my Horfe's lamenefs in the fame 
*' infiant. Nor did he- halt any more either that 
€< day or the next. A very odd accident this 
« alfi (3)." 

• (2) Journ. from July 20, 1753, to Oft. 28, 1754. 

p. 10. 

(3) Journ. from Oft. 27, 1743, to Nov. 17, 1746. 

a Come 

C. V. of the H o L Y S p i R i T. 101 

Come we next to his Gift of Healing. 
One of his miracles of this kind, had, it feems, 
been brought in queftion ; on which occafion, 
he thus explains himfelf-— " Miracle or no Mi- 
" racle, the fad is plain. W. Kirkman is, I 
" apprehend, ftill alive and able to certify for 
" himfelf, that he had that cough threescore 
" years, and fmce that time [viz. the miracu- 
" lous aid afforded him] it had not returned (4)." 
In the pamphlet where this extraordinary cafe was 
firft recorded, Mr. Wefley afks, Whether any 
one could fuppofe, that if he had performed it 
by his (kill in phyfic, he fliould not have been 
ready to do honour to himfelf rather than trans- 
fer that honour to another? If Mr. Wefley be 
ferious in this queftion, he is the dupe of bis 
fpiritual ambition. The Character of a great 
Saint is infinitely more flattering to the Head of 
a Sea than that of a great Phyncian.-— But to 
proceed. — " I administered the Sacrament to 
" R. A. Some years ago he found peace with 
" God, and was freed at once without any human 
' ; means from a diftemper naturally incurable ( 5 ) .' ' 
But acute as well as chronical diforders fly his 
, {acred prefence.— " I found (fays he) Mr. Lu- 
" nell in fo violent a fever that there was little 
" hope of his life. He revived the moment he 
" faw me, and fell into a breathing fweat. He 
" began to recover from that time. Perhaps 
" for this alfo was I fent (6)." " In the even- 

(4) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 10, 1750. 
p. 123. 

(5) Journ. from July 20, 1749, to. Oft. 30, 1751. 

P- 34* 

(6; Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, to 0&. 27, 1743* 

P 34. 

F 3 

« mg 

102 On the Office and Operations B. IF. 

c< ing I called upon Anne Calcut. She, had 
" been fpeechlefs for fome time. But almoft 
" as foon as we began to pray, God reftored 
" her fpeech. She then witnefled a good con- 
" fenlon indeed. I expected to fee her no 
<£ more. But, from that hour, the 
" fever left her, and in a few days fhe 
<s arofe and walked, glorifying God (7)." —  
" I vifited feveral of the Sick. Moll of them 
were iil of the fpotted Fever ; which, they 
informed me, had been extremely mortal, 
few perfons recovering from it. But God 
had faid, Hitherto shalt thou come. 
< u I believe there was not one with whom we 
<s were, but he recovered (8).'' — ii They told 
me the Phyfician faid, he did not expect Mr. 
Meyrick would live till the morning. I went 
" to him, but his pulfe was gene. He had 
been fpeechlefs and fenfelefs for fome time. 
A few of us immediately joined in prayer (I 
<c relate the naked faff.) Before we had done, 
<c his fenfe and his fpeech returned. Now he 
that will account for this by natural caufes> 
has my free leave, I chufe to fay, This is 
« c the power of God (9)." However, gra- 
cious as this free leave is, I would not, Reader ! 
be the man to advife you to truft to it. Saints 
are vindictive : He has fairly told you what he 
thufes to call it. And after this, who can tell 

(7) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, to Oct. 27, 1743. 

P- 34- 

(8) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1739} t0 ^P 1, 3> I 74 I - 
p 6i. 

(9) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, to 0€t. 27, 1743. 
p. 81. 




4 4 

C. V. cf the Holy Spirit. 103 

how far he may think the honour of God con- 
cerned in making fo free with his Meflenger as 
to take him at his word, having before folemnly 
aPiured you, of " many living witneifes which 
" God hath given, that His hand is still 
tc J} retched out to heal , and that figns and wonders 

are even now, wrought by his holy Child 

Jesus (1)?" 

From the cure of natural difeafes, proceed we 
to the Jupernaturalj or, faving your prefence, to 
the casting out of Devils. Having re- 
lated, by way of prelude, the extravagances of 
a furious female Demoniac of nineteen or twenty 
years of age, whom he fet to rights v/ithout 
much ceremony ; he proceeds immediately to 
another of the fame Sex ; but her, he exorcifes 
in form, and according to the true Roman 

faihion. " I was fent for to one in Briftol—  

" She lay on the ground furioufly gnafhing her 
" teeth, and after a while roared aloud. It 
" was not eafy for three or four perfons to hold 
" her, especially when the name of Jefus was 
" named. We prayed; the violence of her 
" fymptoms ceafed, tho\ without a compleat de~ 
" liverance. In the evening being fent for to 
" her again, I was unwilling, indeed afraid to 
" go ; thinking it would net avail, unlefs fome, 
w who were jlrong in faith, were to wreftle 
" with God for her. I opened my Teftament 
U on thefe words — / was afraid^ and went and 
<c hid my talent in the earth, I flood reproved, 
" and went immediately. She began fcream- 

(1) Journ. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
p. 40. 

F 4 cc ing 


1C4 On the Office and Operations B. if. 

tfc ing before I came into the room, then broke 
** out into a horrid laughter mixt with blaf- 
phemy, grievous to hear. One who, from 
many circumftances, apprehended a preter- 
*' natural Agent to be concerned in this, afk- 
" ing, How didft thou dare to enter into a 
Chriftian ? was anfwered, She is no Obri/Han, 
She is mine. Q. Doft thou not tremble at the 
name of Jefus ? No words followed, but Jhe 
*' jhrimk back and trembled exceedingly. Q^ Art 
u thou not encreafing thy own damnation ? It 
ci was faintly anfwered, Ay, ay: which was 
** followed by frefh curfing and blafpheming. 
" My Brother coming in, ihe cried out, 
\* Preacher/ Field- Preacher. I (fa net Lve field- 
6< preaching. This was repeated two hours to- 
46 gether, with fpittings and all the expremons 
<c of flrong averfion. And now it was that 
*'• God fhewed he heareth the Prayer — She was 
" filled with peace, and knew that the Son of 
'-' JVi eke 'dnefs was departed from her." — This is 
very well : The next is not inferior — " I was 
" fent for to Kingfwood again" [namely to the 
young woman with whom he preludes thefe 
atchievements.] " A violent rain began juff. 
** as I fet out, fo that I was thoroughly wet in 
" a few minutes. Juft at that time the wo- 
" man (then three miles off) cried out, Yon- 
<c der comes IVeflty galloping as fajl as he can. 
(i When I was come, I was quite cold and 
¥ dead, and fitter for fleep than prayer. She 
" burft out into a horrid laughter, and laid, 
" No power , no power \ no faith ', no faith: She 
" is ?nine. Her Soul is mine, I have he?-, and 
*' will not let go. We begged of God to in- 
** creafeour faith— One, who was clearly con- 

** vinced 

C. V. of the Holy Spirit. 105 

" vinced this was no natural diforder, faid, / 
" think Satan is let loofe. I fear he will* 
" not stop here ; and added, I command 
" thee in the name of the Lord Jefus, to tell if 
" thou haft commiflion to torment any other 
" Soul. It was immediately anfwered, I have , 
<c L—y C — r and S — h "J — s, two who lived 
cc at fome diftance, and were then in perfect 
" health (2)." In which, I dare fay, they did 
not long continue, after the Exorcift had thus 
configned them over to Satan, now let loofe to 
do Mr. Wefley honour. But what is moft ma- 
terial (if we may believe Him or his fpiritual Co- 
adjutor) is, that Mr. Wefley's new birth only 
makes the Chri/lian ; and that the Devil hates 
field-preaching. To evince thefe great Truths 
feems to have been the end both of the PofTef- 
fions and of the Exorcifms. Popery and Pu- 
ritanism, it is to be obferved, have, 2t 
times, for the like righteous ends, received 
equal credit from the fame reverend Teftimonies, 
the Devil and the Prieft : as the curious may 
read with pleafure in the Detection of two fa- 
moas impoftures carried on in each of thofe" 
Quarters, and recorded by the elegant pen of 
Dr. Samuel Harsnet, (3) bifhop of Nor- 
wich, and afterwards Archbifnon jf York. B 
which we may gather, that vac Inhabitants 
below are divided imo Seels as well as thofe 
above ; and that there are Popijby Puritan^ and 

(2) Journ. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739* 
p. 92, 93, & feq. 

(3) A declaration of egregious Fopijh imp f tares, cfe. 
Lond. 1603. Q^ Declaration of Puritan imp'ftwT 
the cafe of barrel ', &c. Lond. 1599. Q^ 

F 5 \M*$Wifl<i 

io6 On the Office and Operations B. II, 

Methodift^ Devils ; who have all, in their 
turns, been forced to anfwer to Interrogatories ; 
and to depofe in honour of the Sect they perfe- 
cted, at the expcnce of that to which they 

Such were the bleffings which Mr. Wefley 
beftowed upon his Friends : for his Enemies he 
had other things in ftore ; and thofe no fmall 
ones, the exterminating Judgments of 
Heaven. Yet ftill the treatment was ftric"t]y 
Apoftolical. " I preached (fays he) at Dar- 
<6 lafton, late a den of Lions : But moft of the 
" fiercer! of them Gsd had called away by a 
" train of amazing strokes ; and thofe 
" that remain are now as lambs (4)." The 
corrections, we fee, as thofe of Heaven fhould, 

had their proper effect.--" I preached at R , 

" once a place of furious riot and perfecution ; 
" but quiet and calm, fince the bitter Reftcr is 
" gone to give an account of himself to 

" God (5)/' — " Hence we rode to T , 

*' where the Minifter was flowly recovering 
¥ from a violent fit of the Palfy, with which he 
14 was ilruck immediately after he had been 
4< preaching a virulent Sermon againft the Me- 

44 thod-fts (6)." — " The Rev. Mr. preached 

44 — and inveighed very much againft the novel 
" feci, the upftart Methodifts — Shortly after, he 
44 v/as to preach [the fame fermon again]. 

{4) Journ. from July 20, 1749, to Oct. 3c, 175 1. 
p. 8i. 

(5) Journ. from July 20, 1750, to Oct. 28, 1754. 
j>. ii. 

(6) Journ. ibid. p. 23. 

.2 I «* Ke 

C. V* tf//^ Holy Spirit. 107 

" He had named the text twice* when he was 
" fuddenly feized with a rattling in his throat, 
" attended with a hideous groaning. He fell 
<c backward againft the door of the pulpit ;— . 
cc was carried away, as it feemed, dead into the 
" veftry. In two or three days he recovered 
" his fenfes, and the Sunday following, 
" died (7)." 

" One of the chief of thofe who came to 
cc make the difturbance on the firft inftant, had 
" hanged himself. — A fecond of them had 
£* been for fome days in flrong pain, and had 
" many times- fent to defire our prayers. A 
iC third came to me himfelf and confeffed, he 
tc was hired that ni^ht and made drunk on 
" purpofe; But when he came to the door, he 
" knew not what was the matter^ he could not 
" jVir nor open kis mouth (8)." Here, by ill 
luck, the miracle furTers ; for drunkennefs alone 
is but too apt to deprive a man of his faculties 
of fpeech and local motion. " I was quite fur- 
" prized when I heard Mr. R — preach. That 
M foft, fmooth, tuneful voice, which he fo 
. " often employed to blafpheme the Work of God 9 
<* was loft without hope of recovery. All 
" means had been tried, but none took place. 
" He now fpoke in a manner shocking to 
" hear, &c. (9)"—" Mr. C. fpoke fo much 
*' in favour of the Rioters, that they were all 

(7) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, to Oct. 2j, 1743. 
p. 103-4. 

(8) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741. 

(9) Journ, from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 79. 

F 6 « dif-. 

TO 8 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

** discharged— a few days after Mr. C. walk- 
*' ing over the fame field dropt down and /poke 

4i no more. Surely the mercy of God would 

t<; not fuffer a well-meaning man to be any 

*' longer a tool to Persecutors (i)." — tc Galling 

* c at Newgate [in Briftol] I was informed that 

<v the poor wretches under fentence of death 

u were earneftly defiring to fpeak with me ; 

u but that it could not be : Alderman Beecher 

ii having juft then fent an exprefs order, that 

li they fhould not. I cite Alderman Beecher to- 

i4 aniiver for thefe Souls at the judgment feat of 

* Chrift (2)." 

In reviewing thefe Judgments (tho' fulmi- 
nated with the air of one who had the divine 
Vengeance at his difpofal) I find fome diffe- 
rence between his and thofe inflicted by the 

I. Their tenors fall upon Cheats and Impof- 
tors, fuch as Ananias and Sapphira ; El) mas the 
Sorcerer, and Simon the Magician : Whereas 
the judgments of this new Apofrle ftrike only 
the members of his own Church, for oppofing 
the tumults of field-preaching, and the freaks of, 
what he calls, the new birth. 2. The 
Enemies of the infant Church' were thejewifh 
Leaders ; and they perfecuted in good eaineff. ; 
yet all thefe, the Apoftles left untouched, and 
referved them for a future reckoning. Mr. 
Wefley's Enemies are his own fellow-members; 
and they perfecute in jeft ; that is, they beat 
drums, they ring bells, and roar with the 

(r) Journ. i id. p. ic8. (2) Journ. ibid. p. 31. 


C. V. of the Holy Spirit. 109 

Rabble; yet thefe, with unrelenting rage* he 
cuts off for troubling him : while the anger of the 
holy Apoftle, on the like occafion, never rofe 
higher than a pailionate wifh (3). Thefe dif- 
ferences, I leave Mr. Wefley to reconcile. 
There is another, which, I think, I may be 
able to account for myfelf. 3. When the 
Apoftles punifhed publicly, they as publicly 
pronounced fentence. Thus to Sapphira, Be- 
hold the feet of them which buried thy Irujband are 
at the Door and fnall carry thee- out ; to Simon, 
Thy money perifh with thee ; and to Ely mas — 
Now behold the hand of the Lord is upon thee, and 
thou Jhalt be blind— But, in this very important 
affair, Mr. Wefley appears to have followed a 
better model, the practice of the Inquisition ; 
where, tho' the Execution be with all the open 
pomp of bitter and uncharitable piety, the Sen- 
tence, it is well known, is ever pronounced in 
fecret. In one inftance indeed, he varies from 
his model ; and, at Briftol, commences, as we 
have feen, a regular procefs againft Mr. Alder* 
man Beecher ; whom he fummoneth, to give an 
account for lojl Souk, at the judgment j eat of Chrifl : 
But whether the Alderman demurred ; or whe- 
ther he excepted to the -jurifdid~tion ; or indeed 
what became of him, after he had been fo fairly 
•citedy we no where learn. 

Thefe are fome of the extraordinary Graces 
■of which Mr. J. Wefiey aflumes the Privileges. 
But let not this faithful view of them, delivered 
in his own words, be miftaken for a confuta- 

(3) / would they were even cut off which troubh 
you. Gal. v. 12. 


HO On the Office and Operations B. ll. 

tiom My purpofe, here, is only to (hew that 
he lays claim to them, and fo becomes a proper 
Subject of the Apostolic Test, by which we 
are enabled to di (criminate all fubl unary Wifdofn 
from that which is from above. And if, on the 
application now to be made, he cannot bear the 
touchy it will be our fault not to fee him for the 
future, in his genuine form of Deluder and 
Fanatic ; which he has been long fufpe&ed to 
have covered with another, namely, the form 



WE come now to the application of this 
Sovereign Teft, the Scourge and Con- 
fuficn of Impofture. 

This wisdom from above, of which the 
Apoftle fo highly predicates, is, we fee, the 
fame as Wifdom revealed immediately from Heaven ; 
but, defcending to Man, is adapted to the ca- 
pacity of his Powers. So that heavenly and 
earthly wifdom have this in common, to be . 
communicable, that is, to be understood. 
For to communicate nonfenfe, which is a no- 
thing, is no communication. WheJi therefore 
we find a pretender to infpiration, fuch as Ja- 
cob Behmen, delivering to us, under this 
Character, a heap of unmeaning, or, what 
amountb to the fame thing, unintelligible words, 
we reafonably conclude, that if indeed, this 
Wifdom did come from above, it hath fo dege- 

C. VI. c/^Holy Spirit, tii 

neratcd in its way down, as to be ever unfit to 
return ; but muft be content, with the other 
lapfed Entities of celeflial original, to feek em- 
ployment amongft fools and knaves, here below. 
Nor will the Apology of his illuminated Difci- 
ple (4), in his book called The Way to divine 
Knowlege, at all mend the matter. " When 
" Jacob, (fays he) like Elijah, in his Fiery 
<c Chariot, is caught up into fuch heights, 
r and fees and relates fuch things as I cannot 
•-* yet comprehend, I love and reverence him 
" for being where I never was, and feeing fuch 
" things as he cannot make me fee; juft as I 
" love and reverence St. Paul, &c. (5)" The 
comnarifon, we fee, is honourable ; tho' lefs ap- 

(4) Mr. William Law. 

(5) The Way to DIVINE KNOWLEDGE, &C. p. 88. 

—Mr. John Wefley indeed, tho* no enemy to thefe 
fuperb Vehicles, fpeaks very difrefpeSfully of Jacob's 
fiery Chariot : " I can and muft fay thus much [of his 
" Myfterium magnum] and that with as full evi- 
" dence, as I can fay that two and two make four, 
" it is moll fublime nonfenfe, inimitable bombaft, 
" fuftian not to be paralleled. Journal from Sept, 
" 3, 1741, to Oft. 27, 1743." — Another writer, who 
had the bell means of being well informed, affures u?, 
that this fiery Cha>iot was not of Jewilh but of Ger- 
man conftru&ion. " Jae. Bohmius Sutor Gorlicenfis 
" —Hie cum natura ipfa proclivis elfet ad res abditas 
** perveftigandas, et Rob. Fluddii ac Rofaecruciano- 
" rum fcita cognovilfet, Theologiam, igne duce, ima- 
" ginatione comite invenit, ipfis Pythagoricis nu- 
'* meris et Heracliti notis obfeuriorem — ita enim 
" Chymicis "imaginationibus et tanta verborum con- 
41 fulione et caligine omnia mifcet, ut ipfe fibi obflre- 
" pere videatur." J. L, Mo/kemii lift. Hjft. EaL 
*at, & recent, 


112 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

pofite than one could wifh : For here lies the 
difference between Jacob and Paul : The Rofe- 
crucian talks largely of what he knew his reader 
could not underftand ; and the Apoftle, as Maf- 
ter of himfelf, tho' not of his Subject, more 
fagely obferves a religious filence (6). But fo 
will not Mr. William Law, who is Mafter of 
neither. And who, without the bleffed Jacob's 
fiery Chariot , can foar like him to the lunar re- 
gion of loft intellects ; from whence he brings 
us thefe curiofities, — a hungry, wrathful, mate- 
rial fire — fpiritual materiality — a mirrour of found 
— wrath tur ned into Sun and Stars — darknefs into 
Earth — and mobility into Air ; And informs us 
of thefe fecrets, that life is defire j that rage is 
the caufe of hardnefs in a flint ; meeknefs, of fluidity 
in water j that earthly Jerpents are but tranfitory 
cut- births of covet oujnejs, envy, pride and wrath ; 
and laftly, that body is only coagulated or curdled' 
fpirit : with much more to the fame purpofe, 
that would difgrace even Bedlam at full moon. 


HAVING fhewn this Ulfdom to be, in its 
nature, communicable, and fo, cut 
off all the bold pretenfions of thefe Mystics, 
we come to what St. James makes its firn: and 
efTential quality ; The wifdo?n from above, fays 
he, is First, Pure, zrgurov juev dyvr{ ifiv— 

(6) aggiQct I'i^cCicc a, hk\£qv wfyuwu ftctiwrxu I Cor. 
ocii. 4. 

i. e. 

C. VIL c//^ Holy Spirit. 113 

i. c. pure, both from carnal and fpiritual poll u~ 
tion. Now as Mr. Wm. Law begot Metho- 
dism (7), and Count Zinzendorf rocked the 
Cradle, it may not be improper, firft of all, to 
examine their pretenfions to this elTential quality 
of heavenly wifdom, purity. 

As purity refpe&s practice, thofe followers of 
the Count, the Moravians, give us little 
trouble. For to pafs by their open Hymn-book y 
a heap of blafphemous and beaftly nonfenfe ; it' 
we may give credit to the yet unconfuted rela- 
tions both in Print and in MS, (compofed by 
their own Members, the Participants of their 
moft facred myfteries) their practices in the 
confummation of marriage, or as their Ritual 
calls it, the Marriage Occonomy, are fo horribly, 
fo unfpeakably flagitious (8), that this People 
feems to have no more pretence to be put 
into the number of Chriitian Seels than the 

(7) " Meeting with Mr. Laws Chrifl'ian Perfection 
" andferious Call — the light flowed in fo mightily on 
f* my foul, that every thing appeared in anew View, 
jM &c. &c." Journ. from Feb. I, 1 757-8, to his re- 
turn from Germany* p. 29. 

(8 ; Mr. J. Wefley, in a melancholy account, which, 
he fays, he received of thefe Wretches at Bedford^ 
Inferts the following particular — " Mr. Rimius has 
,c faid nothing to what might have been faid con- 
" cerning their Marriage Oeccnomy. I know 
*' "[faith the informer] a hundred times more than 
he has written. But the particulars are too mock- 
ing to relate. I believe no fuch things were ever 
praclifed before, no not amongft the moft barbarous 
*' Heathens." Journ. from July 20, 175Q, to Ocl, 28, 
1754. p. 74. 




114 ® n the Office and Operations B. II. 

Turlupiks of the thirteenth Century ; a va- 
gabond crew of mifcreants, who rambled over 
Italy, France, and Germany, under the title of 
Brothers and Sifters of the free Spirit ; Who, in" 
fpeculation, profefled that fpecies of Atheifm, 
called Pantheifin ; and, in practice, claimed an 
£xcmption from all the obligations of morality 
and religion. 

The Behmenists, indeed, have not ex- 
tended the freedom of their Spirit to this 
length \ yet the Leader of the feci:, amonglr. us, 
tho' manifefting an exemplary abhorrence of all 
carnal impurity^ has fallen into the loweft dregs 
of \h.z Spiritual?, and haih written a large dif- 
courfe to recommend Pantheism, a Doctrine 
fo much ennobled by the Turlupins^ of the thir- 
teenth Century ; fo learnedly explained by the 
Cartefian Spinofiits, and fo politicly concealed 
by the Chinefe Virtuofi : Which teaches, that 
there is but one univerfal Subffance exifting, of 
which, the Creature and Creator (if, after this, 
they are to be diftinguimed) participate in com- 
.mon. The general principles of this unhappy 
Philof phy, the Reader may find in the note 
below (9). 


(9) f f It is the fame impoiTibility for a thing to be 
" ceated out <?/~nothing, as to bs created by nothingi 
" It is no more a part or prerogative of t »od's omni- 
<l potence to create a Being out of nothing, than to 
*' make a thing to be without any one quality of 
". Being, in it — Every creature is nothing elfe than 
*' Nature put into a .certain form of exigence." 
An appeal to oil that c?cubt or dijbelie-oe the truths of the 
Gof-ely by W. Law, M. A. 1742, p. 8. 

" That 

C. VII. of the Holy Spirit. ii$ 

But next to this impurity of fanatic TPifdom 
which fets Nature in the throne of God, is 


'* That which thinks and wills in the foul, is that 
i( very same unbeginning breath which thought 
V and willed in God, before it was breathed into the 
" form of a human foul ; and therefore it is, that 
" Will and Thought cannot be bounded. — The 
•* e Me nces of the foul were a breath in God before 
* ; they became a living foul, they lived in God before 
" they lived in the created foul ; and therefore the 
'■' foul h a partaker of the eternity of God, and can 
" never ceafe to be." P. 10. 

'* The creation of a foul is the bringing the powers 
,: of thinking and willing- out of their eternal irate in 
" tne one God, into a beginning ila:e of felf-confcious 
" life, diftincl: from God. And this is God's omni- 
" potent creating ability, that he can make the powers 
" of his own nature become creatural, living perfonal 
" images of what he is in himfelf, in a ilate of 
*.* distinct personality from him." P. 12. 

It is no more a property of the divine omnipo- 
tence to be able to annihilate a foul, than to be able 
" to make an eternal truth become a fiction of yefter- 
" day. And to think it a leflening of the power of 
11 God, to fay, that he cannot annihilate the foul, is 
'« as abfurd as to fay, that it is a lefTening of the ligh{ 
4< of the Sun, if it cannot deftroy or darken its own 
rays of light." P. 17. 

" To fuppofe this or any other material world 
to be made out of nothing, has all the fame abfur- 
dities in it as the fuppofing angels and fpirits to be 
created out of nothing. All the qualities of all 
Beings are eternal. — All qualities, properties, or 
" whatever can be affirmed of God, are felf-exiftent 
" and neceflarily-exiflent. Self and neceflary ex- 
" iftence is not a particular attribute of God, but Is 
'.* the general nature of every thing that can be af- 
u firmed of God. All qualities and properties are 

Il6 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

that other, which feparates Reason from 
Grace. It is " a point we chiefly insist 
** upon, (fays Mr. J. Wefley, the pillar and 
" ground of Methodifm) that orthodoxy or 
" right opinion is, at beit, but a very flen- 
(i der part of Religion, if any part of it 
44 at all (i)." Here we fee Reason is, as 
it were, difcarded from the fervice of Reli- 
gion, and from its attendance on Grace : 
tho' one part of the office of the Holy Spirit be 
to lead us into all truth. For when Reafon is no 
longer employed to diftinguifh between right 
and wrong in Opinions, Religion hath no fur- 
ther connexion with it. And what occafion for 

** felf-exiftent in God. — It follows undeniably that 

*' DIVINE NATURE." P. 23, 24. 

" Properly and firictly fpeaking nothing can begin 
" to be. The beginning of every thing is nothii g 
<c more than its beginning to be rn a new ft ate. — No 
" quality or power of nature then began to be; but 
V fuch qualities and powers as had been from all eter- 
1 nity began then to be in a ttenvfiate. Aflc what 
fire, light, darknefs, air, water, and earth are ; 
They are and can be nothing elfe but fome eter- 
nal things, become grofs, finite, meafurable, 
•' divifible, and tranfitory : For if there could be a 
ft temporal fire that did not fpring out of eternal fire, 
f' then there might be time that did not come out of 
" eternity." P. 114, 1 1$. 

" Will any one now call thefe things <vchimfical fpe- 
" culations? Can any thing be thought of, more 
", worthy of God, more conformable to Nature, 
° or more consonant to all revealed Religion ?" 
P. 118. * 

(1) Mr. J. Wefley's Flair, account. &c. p. 4. 



C. VII. f//^ Holy Spirit. 117 

its fervice when the diftinction, we are told, is 
of fo little confequence ? And yet if we once 
agree to feparate Reafon from Religion, Piety 
will foon degenerate into Superftition or Fana- 
ticifm. But the Piety of the firft ages had a 
different effence : It was then the glory of the 
Gofpel to be a reafonable Service. By this qua- 
lity it was diftinguimed from the various modes 
of Gentile Worfhip, which entirely confifted in 
the fanatic Raptures of their Prophets, and the 
Superftitious Rites of theis Priells. Articles of 
belief or a formula of Faith, they left to thofe 
Innovators who had now pretended to bring in 
Reafon for the regulation of Religion ; orthodox 
or right Opinion being (on the principles of thefe 
antient Mailers of the Mob, the fupporters of 
Paganifm) at befi but a very /lender part of Reli- 
gion, if any part of it at all. On the other hand, 
St. Paul confidered right Opinion as a full third 
part at leaft, of Religion j where fpeaking of 
•the three great fupports which the Matter- 
builder, the Holy Spirit, had provided for 
the Chriftian-Church, he makes this, of right 
opinion, to be one. The fruit of the Spirit (fays 
he) is in all Goodness a?id righteousness 
und truth (2), For by Goodnefs (3) is meant 
the conduct of Particulars to the Whole ; and 
confifts in the exemplary habits of fecial virtue : 
And this refers to Christian practice. By 
right eoufnefe (4) is meant the conduct of the 
Whole to Particulars ; and confifts in that equal 
gentlenefs of Government, where Church-Au- 
thority is made to coincide with the private 

(2) Eph. v. 9. (3) 'AyzQa-avw. 

(4) Aiy.cuocrv'vr)' 


Il8 On the Office and Operations B. 11, 

rights of Confcience ; and this refers to Chris- 
tian discipline. And by Truth (5) is meant 
the conduct of the Whole and of Particulars to 
one another, mutually ; and confifts in Ortho- 
doxy or right Opinion ; and this refers to Chris- 
tian Doctrine. So different an Idea had 
St. Paul of Religion from what this over-zea- 
]ous man hath been led to entertain of it. No 
lefs was the difference, which the firft Re- 
farmers from the errors of Popery, entertained 
of it -, who, for the fake of right opinion, occa- 
sioned fo many revolutions in Civil as well as in 
Jpiritual Syftems ; the perverfity of men turning, 
as it had before done, the meffage of peace into 
ajivcrd (6). How much then had all thefe to, 
anfwer for, if right opinion be at heft but a /lender 
fart of Religion, if any part of it at all. With- 
out doubt, Mr. Wefley has, by this declara- 
tion, provided well for the fortune of his own 
Seel:, amongft all denominations cf Chriftians. 
But what obligations the Church of England 
(of which he profefles himfelf a member) has 
unto him for thus fhortening the labours of the 
Popifh Miflionaries, he would do well to con- 
sider. Such efcapes as thtfe, I fuppofe, they 
were, which occafioned the' reports of his 
preaching Popery to his Followers ; a calumny 
of which he bitterly complains: And not with- 
out reafon : For to do him juflice, I believe he 
has as little regard to the interefts of Popery as 
any of his hearers ; and as much to his Own : 
The truth feems to be this. He could not find 

(5) 'AAtjOew*. 

(6) Matt. x. 34. 'Think not that 1 am come to fend 
peace on earth, J came not to fend peace, but a f word. 

a better 

C. VII. a/^Holy Spirit. ii^ 

a better mean of fecuring the honour of his own 
pretenfions than by this extraordinary declara- 
tion. He faw the exact refemblance there is 
between his Saints and thofe of the Church of 
Rome, at the time of the'NEw birth. This 
might lead reflecting men to conclude, that the 
Original of both was the fame. Yet as the 
Popifh and Proteftant opinions, or Articles of 
faith, are very oppofite to one another, the God 
of Truth, (while Truth was fuppofed to confli- 
tute a principal part of Religion) could never 
be believed to have any thing to do with the 
new birth, whether popifh or proteflant. No- 
thing then was left for thofe who had deferted 
Nature, but to afcribe both to Enthufiafm or De- 
monianifm. To avoid this difgrace, Mr. Wefley 
rather chufes to let Popery fhare with him in 
the glory of divine communications, and ex- 
prefly vouches for the Miracles wrought at the 
tomb of Abbe Paris (7). Now this conceffion 
Could be no otherwife fupported than by incul- 
cating the notion, That errors in Faith have fo 
little to do with Religion, that they are no barr 
or impediment to the higheft favours of the 
Holy Spirit. If is the point (fays he) we chiefly 
fafift upon, that Orthodoxy or right opinion is at 
bejl but a very /lender part of Religion, if any part 
of it at all. Great reafon likewife had he to 
insist on this point, on another account, 
namely the Character he hath given of his own 
Saints. " The more, fays he, I converfe with 
" this People, the more I am amazed. That 
** God haih wrought a great work is manifeft. 

(7) Journ. from July 20, 1749, to Otf. 30, 1751. 
p. 23. 

" And 

120 On the Office and Operations B. IL 

<c And yet the main of them — are not able to 
" give a rational account of the plaineji pri?iciples 
<c of Religion. 1 * Nor is this obfervation con- 
fined to the People. He had made a profelyte 
•of Mr. D. vicar of R. And to fhew he was no 
oifcredit to his Matter, he delivers him to us 
under this Character — " He feemed to ftago-er 
" at nothing ; tho' as yet his underjlanding is 
" not opened (8)." He then attempts at the 
Caufe of this ftrange Phenomenon. " It is 
" plain, God begins his work at the Heart \ 
<c Then the infpiration of the Higheft giveth 
" underjlanding (9)." But this folution, tho' it 
be in Scripture language, is neither Scripture 
doctrine nor hiftory. In the firft propagation 
of Religion, God began with the underjlanding ; 
and rational conviction won the heart. When 
the Holy Ghoft fell on the Difciples at the day 
of Pentecoft, the devout men of every nation under 
heaven heard them fpeak in their own tongues. 
— But what ? Not the jargon of fanatic move- 
ments, but the wonderful works of God, i. e. 
they heard them give a rational account of the 
various parts of God's religious Difpenfations 
to Mankind. It was juft the fame on all other 
occafions : When the Spirit firft fell upon Be- 
lievers, they prophefied ; that is, they explained 
the Scriptures of the Prophets. But the diffen- 
fion amongft the Corinthians fets this matter in 
the cleareft light, and fhews that the firjl effect 
of infpiration is to give underjlanding. Their 

(8) Journ. from July 20, 1750, to Oft. 28, 1754.^ 
p. 1 1. 

(9) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 121. 


C. VII. «/^Holy Spirit. i£i 

underftanding was fo inlargecT by all fpirituat 
gifts, that the work not having been begun at the 
heart, they abufed thefe advantages to the vio- 
lation of Charity. But, for this difcordancy, 
between his Million and St. Paul's, he has a 
falvo : He obferves occafionally, in feveral 
places of his journal, " that God now not only 
" does a new work, but by new ways." This 
folution of our fpiritual Empiric, puts one in 
mind of the Quack in Moliere, who having 
placed the liver on the left fide, and the heart 
on the right, and being told that the ftru&ure 
of the parts was certainly otherwife, replied, 
Oui, cela etoit autre fois ainfi ; mais nous avons 
change tout cela, Si nous faifons maintenant la 
medecine d'une methode toute nouvelle. — But 
tho' he talks of the under/landing coming after, 
this is only to put off his babes of grace, to latter 
lammas : Which he has plainly enough infi- 
nuated in a parallel between the work carried 
on in England and in America. " I now (fays 
" he) looked over Mr. Prince's Chrijlian Hif- 
* c tory. What an amazing difference is there 
" in the manner wherein God has carried on 
" his work in England and in America ! T(?ere y 
" above an hundred of the eftablilhed Clergy, 
" men of a^e and experience, and of the oreateft 
u note for fenfe and learning in thofe parts, are 
li zealoufly engaged in the zvork. Here y almoft 
Ci the whole Body of the aged, experienced and 
<£ learned clergy are zealoufly engaged againft 
it : A few, but a handful of raw young men, 
engaged in it j without name, learning, or 
eminent sense ! And yet by that large 
" number of honourable men the work feldom 
* c flourished above fix months at a time ; and 

G " then 


122 On the Office and Operations B. II." 

" then followed a lamentable and general de- 
ff, cay, before the next revival of it: Wheieas 
" that which God hath wrought by thefe de- 
cc fpifed inftruments hath continually increafed 
{« for fifteen years together (i)." Now, what 
is this but to tell us, that the under/landing hath 
nothing, and will have nothing, to do in the 
work ? 

On the whole, therefore, we conclude, That 
that Wifdom which divefts the ChrifHan Faith 
of its Truths and the teft of this Truth, Reafon, 
and refolves all into internal feelings, into myf- 
tic fpiritualifm, and extatic raptures, inftead of 
giving it the manly fupport of moral demon- 
stration, That this, I fay, can never be the 
wifdom which is from above, whofe charncleriftic 
attribute is Purity. Thus, on a fair trial, thefe 
illuminated Doclors have, at their very fir ft 
entrance, excluded themfelves from their high 
pretenfions : Principles like thefe always coming 
from Spiritual impurity : and often leading, as 
we have feen, into the very fink of the carnal. 

vt -itf-wywwKr -w«Jttr -hj^t -ar «r »r xr >*- w kt 


UT now, had it been our good fortune to 
have found the matter otherwife ; and that 
the Wifdom enquired after, had refted upon that 
foundation on which celeflial Wifdom muft ne- 

(i) jo urn. from July 20, 1750, to Oct. 28, 1754. 
p. 43. 


C. VII I. of ^ Holy Spirit, 123 

cefiarily fraud, (and this it might well do, tho' 
it came not immediately from the Fountain- 
head of Purity ; as the unbroken Cijl ems of Holy 
Writ were amply fufHcient to fupply thefe living 
waters) our next bufinefs Would be to profecute 
the inquiry, and to apply the other apoftolic 
marks to thefe pretending Sectaries. 

Of thefe marks, the fii-it only (which hab 
been fo amply difcufs'd) namely purity, refpei 
the Nature of the JVifdom from above ; or, m 
other words, the Doctrines taught. All the r< it, 
which folio w, concern the Manner of teach- 
ing, or the Conduct of the Teachers. We are 
not therefore to {top fhort in our enquiry, be- 
caufe we may have found that the mark of- 
purity has anfwered to the touch ; tho' Mr. J. 
Wefley (who allures us that he preaches nothing 
but the doctrine of the Church of England) 
thinks this fufficient to fatisfy all reafonabi'e 
men concerning his conduct:. *? I /imply de- 
" fcribed (fays he) the plain old Religion of the 
" Church of England, which is now almoft 
" every where fpoken again ft, under the name 
" of Methodism (2.)." If Methodifm be 
fpoken againft) thofe who cenfure it, could mean 
neither an old 'nor a new Religion, fince the 
word fignifies only the manner of propagating 
either one or the other. And, of all men, Mr. 
Wefley mould heft know the meaning of the 
term ; fince it was not a nick-name impofed on 
the Sect by its enemies, but an appellation of 
honour aimmed by, and beftowed upon, them- 

(2) Journ. from Auguft 12, 1733,10 Nov. I, 1759. 
p. 9,. 

G 2 ftlves. 

124 On the Office aitd Operations B. II. 

felves. If therefore they preach only the plain 
old Religion of the Church of ' England, they could 
mean nothing, by Methodifm, but the ?nanner 
of preaching it; for the thing itfelf needed no 
other name of diftin£tion than that which it 
had already. Why then will Mr. J. Wefley 
i'o grofly mifreprefent his Adverfaries as to fay, 
that when they fpeak aga'mjl Methodifm, they 
fpeak againjl the plain old Doffrine of the Church of 
England? fince he himfelf has taught them to 


call methodifm (and they might well have called 
it by a harder name) the manner, in which he 
and his followers attempt to propagate this plain 
old Religion, 

However, {trip him of his prevarication and 
his fophiftry, and we find him plainly enough 
declaring, *f That the manner of preaching, fo 
it be truth which is preached, ought to give no 
offence. " And, to this purpofe, he relates the 
following converfation : " A ferious Clergy- 
<c man defired to know, In what point we dif- 
** fered from the Church of England ? I an- 
" fwered, To the beft of my knowlege, in 
" none. The Doctrines we preach are the 
<c Doctrines of the Church of England. In- 
" deed, the fundamental doctrines of the 
" Church, clearly laid down both in her Pray- 
" ers, Articles, and Homilies (3)." 

Be this never fo true, yet it will ftill be as 
true that the moft holy things may be depraved, 
in pafling thro' impure hands \ and that, right 

(2) Journ, from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
p 81. 


C. VIII. «/^ Holy Spirit, 125 

opinion, which infpires wifdom and promotes 
peace, may then ferve for nothing but to turn 
the heads and hearts of men to folly and dilTen- 
tion, otherwife naturally framed and difyofed to 
profit by the truth. Indeed, a fanatic man- 
ner of preaching, tho' it were the doctrine of 
an Apoftle, may do more harm, to Society at 
leaft, than a modeft revival of old fpeculative 
herefies, or, than the invention of nezu ; fince 
it tends to bewilder the Reafon of fome, to in- 
flame the PafTions of others ; and, in that ftate 
of things, to fpread diforder and difturbance 
throughout the whole Community. And in 
Subjection to the civil Community was theGof- 
pel iirft preached ; and under the protection of 
it was it, at length, every where eftablifhed. 
For, what does field-preaching (for in- 
stance) imply, but a famine of the Word, occa- 
sioned by ?L total neglect in the fpiritual Paftors 
appointed by Law ? And what can it produce, 
but ftrong refentments in behalf of the Miniliers 
of Religion, thus injurioufly treated ? What 
can be the iflue of the new birth, attended 
with thofe infernal throes and frightful agita- 
tions fo graphically defcribed in the Journals of 
Mr. J. Wefley, but high ferments in behalf of 
Religion itfelf, thus fcandaloufly difhonoured 
and traduced. 

The facred Writer him,felf ? who delivered 
this Test for the trial of thefe Mens preten- 
fions, was unqueftionably in thefe fentiments, 
" that a fanatic Spirit did more mifchief in the of teaching, than an erroneous one, in the 
matter taught ," fince, of half a dozen marks 
recommended for this purpofe, the fi ft only is 

G 3 applicable 

12b On the Office and Operations B. I[. 

applicable to the doflrine ; all the reft concern 
the manners of the Teacher. 

Nay, what is more, we have Mr. J. Wefley 
himfelf, for once, on the fide of the Apoftle, 
where he fays, that it is a point he chiefly infifts 
upon, that Orthodoxy or right Opinion 
ii 9 at hefty hut a very fender part of Religion, if 
any part of it at all* The Operation of Religion 
on the heart therefore, (which with him is the 
fame as on the fancy, and manifefts itfelf in 
corporeal agitations) is the principal point. 
But this, altogether refolves itfelf into the manner 
of propagating the Faith. 

Yet ftill it may be difputed, Who it is that 
becomes anfwerabie for the diforders occafioned 
by this netv mode or method of propagating Reli- 
gion ? Is it Mr. J. Wefley, or is it his Adver- 
iaries ? He, I make no queftion, will exculpate 
himfelf by the direction of St. Paul to Timothy 
 — to preach the zverd, in feafon, and out of feafon. 
.Which implies, he thinks, that the manner can 
never be amifs, or made chargeable with blame. 

But he would infer more from the Text than 
it will bear; and mifapply it, into the bargain. 
This direction relates to time only, which is but 
one of the many circumfrances attending the 
?nanmr of preaching ; and that one, in which the 
abufe is leaft material. — The application (as 
.we fay) is no lefs faulty. The direction is 
confined to the ftate of things then exifting ; 
when the fuffering Church had fo few opportu- 
nities to preach. the word, that all, whether 
feajonable or unfeafonable, were with reafon. to be 


C. IX. of the Holy Spirit. 127 

laid hold on. When the Church was once 
eftablifhed, and fixed and feafonable times were 
appointed for holy offices, then (as every one 
may fee) to fly to the unfeafonable would be fac- 
tious, and a breach of the difcipline of that 
Church, of which the tranfgreilbr profefled 
himfelf a member. To judge, therefore, of 
the integrity of Mr. J. Wefley's conduct, we 
muft turn from the directions which St. Paul 
gives for his own times, to thofe which St. James 
gives for all times. 


AND this leads us on, in our Enquiry. 
The Wifdom from above (fays this Apo- 
Jtle) is firjl pure, then peaceable.- — To be 
• peaceable is a leading quality in its general 
.Character. A Choir of Angels ufhered in the 
•Advent of the Son of God, with peace, good- 
will towards men (1). And He himfelf, on his 
.departure from us, bequeathed it to us, as his 
deareft legacy : Peace I leave with you, my peace 
I give unto you (2). Now that which the Fa- 
ther proclaimed, which the Son b.^ftowed, 
muft. needs be of the office of the Holy Ghost 
to maintain. Whatever form of godlincfs, there- 
fore, hath not this Characjeriiiric mark, can 
never reafonably be deemed of heavenly extrac- 

(1) Lukeii. 14. (2) John xiv. 27. 

G 4 That 

X2S On the Office am Operations B. IT. 

That the propagation of Methcdifm ha'h oc- 
casioned many and great violations of peace, 
Mr. Wefley hath amply (hewn in the journalary 
hn'lory of his Adventures. 

But as in all contefts between party and party* 
the blame is reciprocally thrown upon one ano- 
ther j before we come more directly to adjuft 
the (hare which may be fairly caft upon Metho- 
dijm y it may be ufeful previously to inquire into 
that temper which makes for peace ; for we may 
be reafonably well allured, that the fault lieth 
not in that quarter where fuch a temper is 
found. Now our bleiTed Redeemer, who fo 
earneftly recommends bis peace to us, hath given 
us directions hew to preferve it — Be ye therefore 
wife [tygovifAoi, prudent} as Serpents and 
hartnlefs as Doves (3). 

And he, who gave his Followers no precept, 
regarding life and manners, which he did not 
eminently recommend by his own example, was 
the moll: perfect, pattern of innocence^ under the 
direction of prudence ; as appears in his dex- 
trous evafions to captious queftions of the Jewifh 
Leaders, who wanted matter to inflame the 
people againft him ; in his avoiding the People, 
when thus inflamed ; and above all, in his de- 
clining an untimely promulgation of his Mef- 
fiah-Characlet j which would either have occa- 
sioned civil commotions, or have endangered 
his life before he had compleated his Miniitry. 
The firft inftance of this consummate prudence is 

(3) Matt. X. 16. So again, Wlo is that fait If d 

*r.a nwj* [*§*.'» *^-. t* ud*** j Servant > Matt. xxiv. 45. 


C. IX. of the Hqj.y Spirit. \%^ 

too important not to be more particularly ex- 
plained. " There came to him (fays St. Mark) 
" the Chief Priefts and Scribes, and the Elders, 
and fay unto him, By what authority dpft 
thou thefe things ? and who gave thee this 
authority? And Jefus anfweredand faid unto 
them, I will alfo afk of you one queftion, 
and anfwer me, and I will tell you by what 
authority I do thefe things. The baptifmof 
" John, was it from Heaven, or of Men ? an- 
fwer me. And they reafoned with them- 
felves, faying, If we (hall fay, From heaven ; 
he will fay, Why then did ye not believe 
him ? But if we mall fay, Of men ; they 
*' feared the People : For all men counted John 
M that he was a Prophet indeed. And they 
* e anfwered and faid unto Jefus, We cannot 
tell. And Jefus anfwesing, faith unto them, 
Neither do I tell you, by what authority I 
do thefe things (4)." 




A direct anfwer to this queftion, apparently 
reafonable, and urged by thofe who had autho- 
rity to demand it, muft have immaturely re- 
vealed what the deftined Miniftry of Jefus made 
necefl'ary to be kept fecret. And yet, to evade 
the queftion, in fuch a manner as was fufficient 
to fatisfy Authority, needed all that divine pru- 
dence with which the Author of our Salvation 
was endowed. He therefore replies, " Firft, 
" anfwer me this queftion concerning John." 
The queftion was reafonable, confidered in the 
vievV of an argument ad hom'ncm; it was rea- 
fonable, from the forc^ it had in itfelf: For if 

^4) Ch. xi. 27, & 'fig, 

G 5 it 

1^0 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

it fhould appear, that that queftion had not 
been determined in the cafe of John, it was evi- 
' dent from their own conduct, that the jurifdic- 
tion of the Sanhedrim was not violated by any 
man's declining to anfwer one of the fame im- 
port. Further, the queftion was reafonable 
and proper in itfelf. John publicly profelTed 
himfelf the forerunner of Jefus : So that if it 
were neceflary for the Sanhedrim to come at the 
true knowlege of the general Cafe, they mould 
have begun with John. This, the natural order 
of a judicial proceeding required. Nor would 
the Chief Priefts have been backward to anfwer 
it, in either view. But here lay the difficulty ; 
the People were of one opinion concerning 
John, and the Sanhedrim of another. This 
erhbarras filenced them. And in our Saviour's 
taking advantage of that circumftance confifts 
the divine dexterity of his exemplary prudence. 
Neither do I tell you (fays he) by zvhat authority 
1 do thefe things. As much as to fay, "Both 
on my principles and on your own, a previous 
queftion is firft to be refolved, namely^ concern- 
ing the baptifm of John. When you have an- 
fwered this, then comes my time to anfwer 
yours : But till then, you have no right to infift 
upon an anfwer." — Such inftances of Pru- 
dence, and fo divinely managed, made St. Paul, 
where in his Epiftle to the Ephefians he diftin- 
guiihes (in the twofold Character of the blefTed 
Jefus) between his office of Redeemer from Sin, 
and Preacher of Righteoufnefs, exprefs his latter 
office in thefe emphatic words, He hath abounded 
towards us in all wifdofn and prudence (5), 

(5) Ch. i. 8. 

C. IX. of the Holy Spirit. 131 

tropin v.) (poovwzi. Which, as appears by what 
follows, the Apoftle makes to confift in his 
Mafter's fuiting and adapting the various Reve- 
lations of his Will to the peculiar feafons and 
occafions when the knowlege of it was become 
ufeful to the furtherance of the Faith. Having 
(fays St. Paul) made known unto us the Myftery of 
his will according to his good plcafurc, which he hail) 
purpofed in h'nnjelf j that in the difpenfation of the 
fulnefs of time he might gather together in one, all 
things in Chri/?, &c. By which the Apoftle feems 
principally to have in mind that obfcure and 
backward intimation, which, for fome time, 
kept hid from his £)ifciples this ?nyjlery of ' his 
will }, the ufual title given by the facred Writers 
to the calling in of the Gentiles into the Church. 
of Chrift. The prudence of which conducl is 
obvious. The Gofpel was to be nrn offered to 
the Jews. But their reception of it was fo un- 
kind, that, had the Apoftlcs been then acquaint- 
ed with this Myjlery, they had been tempted to 
turn to the Gentiles, before the miflion to the 
Jews had been fairly compleated. When that 
'was accomplimed, the myjlery was revealed, in 
all its fplendor, to St. Peter. 

On the whole, therefore, we fee, that the 
peaceful Character is that, where 
innocence is under the direction of 
prudence. Emancipated from this direction, 
Innocence becomes a prey both to itfeif and to 
others ; and is, either actively or pafiively, the 
.perpetual fource of Difcord. 

Let us fee, '.now, the regard our new Mif- 

fionaries profefs to pay to this precept and ex- 

 G 6 ample 


132 0« the Office and Operations B. II. 

ample of their Matter. Human Prudence 
has, fome how or other, fo highly offended 
Mr. J. Wefley, that he fcruples not to call 
it, the Mystery of Iniquity and tha 
Offspring of Hell. — " I believe (fays 
m he) it pleafed God to blefs the flrft Sermon 
Xi moft, becaufe it gave moft offence, being 
indeed an open defiance of that myfiery 
of Iniquity which the World calls Pru- 
dence (6)." As he here informs us, Who 
gave it that Name, one might be apt to fuppofe 
he meant, the Prudence of the unjujl Steward^ 
which is indeed the ?nyfiery of Iniquity^ did not 
he himfelf forbid us to underftand it in this 
fenfe, by fairly telling us that he meant, what 
the World calls Christian Prudence. And as 
bad as the World is, 1 think it never qualified 
the prudence of the unjujl Steward with that 
attribute. — " God deliver me, and all that 
* i feek him in fmcerity, from what the World 
44 calls Christian Prudence (7)." And 
again, to a friend who approved not of his 

field-preaching, *' 1 fear that offspring of 'Hell \ 

44 worldly or myftic prudence, hath drawn 
44 you away from the fimplicity of the Gof- 
" pel (8)." If his averfion to Prudence be thus 
great, his enmity to thofe, amongft whom it 
is ufually found, can fcarce be thought lefs, 
from the hard words he gives whenever he 

fpeaks of them. •* Mrs. Baddiley (fays he) 

44 defired me to go up to her Son, who had 

(6) Journ. from Feb. 1, 1737-8, to his return from 
Germany, p. 12. 

(7) Journ. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
p. 13. 48) Ibid. -p. 56, &; 

44 Deen 

€. IX. of the Holy Spirit. j^ 

" been out of order for fome days. For a 
" year or two he was a pattern to all the 
u family, till he began to converfe more with 
" good sort of men. He then grew cooler 
" and cooler in the ways of God, and in a 
" few months quitted the Society (9)." — " It 
* c is abfolutely needful for fuch a one as me 
" to follow the wife advife of Mr. Herbert 
<c — And this, I b\s&s God, I can, in fome 
" meafure, do, while I avoid that bane of 
" all Religion, the Company of co&p 
" sort of men, as they are called, Perions \ 
" who have a liking to, but no sense of, 
cc Religion." [i. e. no extatic feelings or the 
pains of the new birth^ &c] <v But thefe in- 
** fenfibly undermine all my refolution, and 
" fteal away what little Zeal I have (1)." 
i. e. perfuade him to be peaceable* 

And again, fpeaking of one of his Back- 
Aiders, he fays — " but indulging himfelf in 
harmless Company he firft made fhipwreck 
of his Zeal, and then of his Faith (2)." 
In this I think he is right. The Zeal and the 
Faith of a fanatic are fuch exacl tallies to 
one another that I have no conception how 
either can exift alone. They came into the 
World together to difturb Society and dis- 
honour Christianity ; and they mufi go out 

(9) Joum. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July zq, 

i75°- P-3 1 - A ^ T 

(1) Joum. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 

1739. p. 31. 

(2) Joum. from his embarking for Georgia, to his 
return to London, p, 41. 


134 On the Office and Operations ' B. II. 

together before the One can regain its peace, 
or the Other its dignity. 

On the whole, we find that Mr. J. Wefley 
is, by his own confefiion, entirely deftitute of 
that temper which makes for peace : If therefore 
his preaching be attended with tumults and 
diforders, we cannot but afcribe it to the want 
of that quality, which the Founders of our 
holy Religion made efTential to the fuccefsful 
propagation of the Go/pel of Peace, namely, 
prudence. It is true, Mr. Wefley, as we 
have feen, throws the whole fault of thefe tu- 
mults on the Devil ; and this may be allowed 
him in the fenfe that every paultry Pilferer 
and Sabbath- breaker is ufed to do. But if we 
feek for the more immediate caufe, we mall 
find it much nearer hand. The Roman Sati- 
rift pretended, 

. Nullum Numen abeft, fi fit Prudentia, 

Where Prudence governs, ?io God is wanting 
to keep the world In order. We may fay, with 
more fobriety and truth, that where Impru- 
dence takes the lead, there needs no Devil to 
throw it into confufion. What, for inftance, 
more ftrongly tends to tumult and diforder than 
for One who profefTes to propagate only the 
plain old Religion of the Church of England, to fet 
at nought its eftabliihed Difcipline, by invad- 
ing the province of the parochial Minifter ; 
by aflembling in undue places and at unfit 
times; by fpeaking evil of Dignities, in fcurrilous 
invectives againft the Governors and Paftors of 
the national Church I Infolences of this na- 
% ture 

C. IX. '5//^ Holy Spirit, 13$ 

ture provoke warm and ill-inftructed men to 
demand juftice on the offenders : Which not be- 
ing at hand, (as the interefts of Society will 
not, always, permit the Magiftrate to enforce 
it, where the infults on his office are covered 

•with the pretences of Religion) Particulars are 
but too apt to feek that in a tumultuary and 
criminal way, which all the providence of 
Government, and all the equity of Law, are 

• but barely fumcient to adjult, with fuch dis- 
cretion, as, that while the dignity of the State 
is vindicated, the rights of Religion are not 

Nor will that fanatic Apology, which is ever 
'at hand, be any excufe for them in the com- 
-miffion of their diforders ; namely, " That 
the violation cf peace amongjl ?ncn ferves to ad- 
vance the peace of God; our bleffed Mailer 
"having himfelf declared, that be was not come 
to fend Peace on earth , but a fword." Now 
the fame Spirit which difpofes them to apply 
to their own cafe all thofe declarations con- 
cerning the, firft extraordinary flate of the Gof- 
pel, hinders them from feeing, that thefe words 
of Jefus refpecr. only the accidental and tran- 
fient druggie of the then expiring Powers of 
darknefs ; but that the heavenly Proclamation 
of peace towards ?nen^ declares the genuine and 
conftant fruits of God's good-zvill to his Crea- 
tures : that the firji only predicted the early 
fortunes of a fuffering Church -, and that the 
other defcribed the eflential nature, the eternal 
genius, of an all-beneficent Religion. But 
Enthufiafts, hurried on by the fervours of an 
inflamed fancy, lofe fight of a Christian land, 


136 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

and a believing Magiftrate ; and have nothing 
before their eyes but a Country of Pagans and 
Idolaters, with the Princes of this world rifen 
up to fupprefs and perfecute the Word of life. 
Under thefe delufions, it is no wonder that they 
defpife order, infult Government, and fet their 
Rulers at defiance. 

But Peace is the cure of Fanaticism, as 
Fanaticifm is the bane of Peace. Sectaries muft 
either kick or be kicked. They muft either 
perfecute, or they muft provoke perfecution. 
To be in this turbulent ftate is living in their 
proper element. 

As every Libertine afpires to be on the 
laughing fide, fo every Zealot would fain be on 
the perfecuting. But Zealots, as well as other 
Adventurers, muft take their chance in this 
world, whatfoever fecurity they have made for 
the other. We fee Methodism, at prefent, 
under a well eftablifhed, watchful Govern- 
ment, where it is obliged to wear a lefs auda- 
cious look. To know its true character, and 
native difpofition, we mould fee it in all its 
fortunes. And this our own Country, produc- 
tive of every ftrange thing, hath given us ample 
means to contemplate. For They, who now 
go under the name of Methodists, were, in 
the days of our Fore- fathers, called Preci- 
sians ; terms of their own devifing, and ,(a* 
the fruits of the fame fpirit) nearly fynonimous, 
importing that the bearers of them had carefully 
fquared out their Religion by line and leve]. 
The elder Metbodifm, on its firft appearance, 
put on the fame fuffering exterior, which we 
6 Tee 

C. IX. «///^ Holy Spirit. 137 

fee the younger Brother wear at prefent. Du- 
ring the firm adminiftration of Elizabeth it 
difguifed, and but barely difguifed, its native 
ferocity, in a feigned fubmifiion ; after having 
invited perfecution with the air of a perfecutor. 
Thofe times, we may be fure, would not fuffer 
k to wait long for what it wanted. And then, 
as a precious Metal, which had undergone its 
trial in the fire, and left all its drofs behind, 
the Seel:, with great propriety, changed its name, 
from Precisian to Puritan. But in the 
weak and diffracted times of Charles the I ft, it 
ventured to throw off the mafk; and, under 
the new name of Independent, became the 
chief Agent of all the dreadful diibrders which 
terminated that unhappy reign. For Inde- 
pendency was a name as well fuited to the 
weaknefs of that Government, which it defied 
and overturned, as Methodism is to the 
ftrength of This, of which it ftands in awe. 
Nor is this Pedigree, which makes Methodifm 
of the younger Houfe to Independency ', invented, 
like heraldic fictions, to ennoble my fubject. 
Whoever reads the large accounts of the Spi- 
ritual Jiatt of the Regicides while under condem- 
nation, (written and publiihed, at that time, 
by their friends, to make them pafs, with the 
People, for Saints and- Martyrs) and compares 
them with the circumftantial Journals of the 
Metbodijls, will find fo exact a conformity in 
the frenzy of fentiment; and even in the cant 
of expreflion, upon the fubjecb of Faith, Grace, 
Redemption, Regeneration, Juitifkation, &c. 
as may fully fatisfy him, that they are both of 
the fame Stock ; and ready, on a return of the 


138 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

like kindly feafon, to produce the fame fruits. 
All the difference, which diftance of times and 
variety of circumftances have effected, is only 
this : The Methodijl is now, • an Apojlolk Inde- 
pendent ; and the Independent was then, a Ma- 
bopuian Method!/?. 

Indeed, it hath been Mr. J. Wefley's mifhap, 
with every other requifite of a fkilful Leader, to 
fall upon times very unpropitious to the for- 
tunes of a new Seel:. 

He found himfelf in a Government whofe 
equity abhorred Perfecution for Religion ; and 
whofe nrmnefs, on the other hand, would not 
fuffer its principles of Toleration to be abufed, 
to the difturbance of Society. Here was little 
room for the exertion of that quality by which 
a Sectary may be properly faid to exift, namely» 
Zeal active or -paflive. He wanted to be per- 
secuted; but Perfecution would not come at his 
,call. Yet, it muff, be owned, he ufed every 
extraordinary method to provoke it : The time ; 
was now pall, when it could be faid of this 
Demon y as of the lefs mifchievous ones of old, 
" Vocatus, aut non vocatus, audit." The 
advantages of pcrficutlon to a new Sect, Mr. J. 

Wefley is not at all fhy in confefling: • 

" Ahout one, I preached at Holton,- where 
" likewife all is now calm, after • a violent 
-" ftorm of feveral weeks, wherein many were 
ct Deaten and wounded, and outraged various 
" ways; but none MOVED,yh?w their Jhdfaji- 
" fiefs. In the evening I preached at Armley, 
£C to many who want a farm y being quite un- 


C. IX. of the Holy Spirit. 139 

" nerved by conftant Sunjhine (3)." It is the 
fame confcious want which makes him com- 
plain of ill treatment ; and yet be diflatisfied 
with good — " We came to St. Ives before 
" morning prayers, and walked to Cnurch 
M without fo much as one huzza. How 
" ftrangely has one year changed the fcene in 
" Cornwall ! This is now a peaceable, nay 
" honourable ftation. They give us good 
" words in almoft every place. What have 
v we done, that the World Jhould be fo civil to 

" « (4) - ? " 

Is not this the language of a man whom 
nothing can pleafe, when he is defeated in a 
fecret purpofe, which he is afhamed to own ? 
He languished, we fee, for good wholesome 
Severities. Many (as he well expreffes it) 
wanted a form, being quite unnerved by con- 
ft ant Sunjhine. To fupply this want, which the 
Magiflrate fo cruelly denied, he is forced to 
make the bed of thofe mock perfecutions, the 
Drums and Huzzas of the Rabble. And fo 
bloody always are his ideas, by a conftant me- 
ditation on this fubjecr, that, fpeaking of the 
mifnomers of the Grand Jury of Cork, in their 
prefentment of his Brother, and half a fcore 
more itinerant Preachers, as vagrants and per- 
fons of ill fame, &c. he thus expreffes himfelf 

" The names (only mod of them miferably 

" mangled and murdered) were defigned for, the 

. (3) Journ. from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 8 8. 

(4) Ibid. p. 31. 

" names 

140 Oh the Office and Operations B. II. 

u names of eight Preachers, &c. (5)" The 
future Martyrologift whom favouring Deftiny 
has appointed to collecl together the Saints and 
Mart\ps of this afflicted Church, will, if he be 
wife, never fuffer himfelf to be mifled into a 
belief that this mamdins and murdering can refer 
to names y or indeed to any thing lcfs than to an 
Irijb Majjacre^ charitably difguiied by our meek 
Apoftle, under a figure^ not to fay a deformity 
of Speech. To give thefe Pcrfecutions all the 
relief in his power, he expatiates on every ad- 
venture with fuch circumftance, that there is 
hardly a turnip- top thus facrilegioufly employed, 
which has not had the honour of being record- 
ed. But this is for Pcfterity : Something more 
was to be done for the fake of the unnerved 
Brethren. This fmall pittance of perfecution^ 
poor as it is, muft be turned to ufe while time 
ierved, left, like a flame of ftraw, it fhould go 
out as foon as it was put into a blaze. He 
therefore contrives to keep perfecution alive by 
profecuting his Perfecutors : And, to make his 
revenge the fweeter, he does it on the toleration 
a£l ; fehe Law which does him fo much mifchief, 
in depriving him of a real Perfecution. This 
he notably turns againft itfelf, and makes an 
Inftrument to fupport and keep up a {hadowy 
Perfecution, in the Shouts and Revels of the 

Of this contrivance, and of the fuccefs of 
this contrivance, he has given us many curious 
examples in his Journals. Abundantly fuificient 

(5) Journ. from July 2.3, 1749* to Oft. 30, ^51. 
p. 4. 


C.X. of the Holy Spirit. 141 

to evince, that tho' he who perfecutes, breaks 
the Peice, yet as he is but the too! and Inftru- 
ment of him who invites and provokes pcrfe- 
a/tion, the crime at length comes home to him 
who fot the Rioter on work. 

<£p ■fip o> <£p <£p qQf <&> c £e <i5p <fp r£fi u3F '-£j?<e£ 1£p c* nf$ >£? <£& 


TH E next mark of celeftial Wifdom is, 
its being gentle and easy to be 
intreated. That is, neither a rigid reprover 
of the i. different manners of others, nor ob- 
ftinately tenacious of its own : but, as far as 
Truth and Honefty will permit, compliant and 
even obfequious to all men. The great Apoftle 
of the Gentiles fully app;oves his pretenfions to 
this JVifdom, in the account he gives of his con- 
duel:, in beca?ning all things to all Men, that he 
might gain fome (6). For the truth of which, 
-he appeals to thofe who were beft acquainted 
with his life and converfation. But amongft 
our modern Apoftles the Scene is fhifted. We 
find them fevere condemners of thofe innocent 
manners of their fellow citizens, which they 
themfelves have abftained from, on pretence of 
their being lefs profitable and edifying, or, per- 
haps, obftrudlive of that perfection which they 
pretend to aim at. Nor are they lefs fevere 
'exactors of conformity to their own obfer- 

(6) 1 Cor, ix. 22. 



142 Otf /Z>* Q^tv and Operations B. II. 

They tell us what we are to think of them, 
in the very appellation they afiume. For Me- 
thodism (as we have faid) implies a fet of 
manners, marked out by the rule and compafs ; 
and, wiien made a name of diftinction, it de- 
clares thofe manners are to be religioufly and 
invariably obferved, as the facred badge of the 
Brotherhood. Hence Mr. J. Wefley in a letter 
to the Church of God at Hernhuth in Upper Lufatia^ 
having reproved them for teaching, " that it 
does imply Liberty to conform to the world, 
by talking on ufelefs, if not trifling fubjecte, 
and byjoining in worldly diverfions, in order 
to do good" They juftify themfelves by fay- 
ing, " We believe it much better to difcourfe 
out of the news papers, than to chatter about 
holy things to no purpofe." To which 
he replies, " Perhaps fo. But what is this 
" to the point ? I believe both one and the 
" other to be ufelefs, and therefore an abo- 
** mination to tke Lord (7)." Nay, he 
pufhed this matter fo far, as to come to a fo- 
lemn refolution, never to laugh: and, to 
guard himfelf againft the approaches of this 
paltry infirmity, never to /peak a tittle of worldly 
things. And certainly, he who carries his di-f- 
fociability to this extreme, is in no danger 
of being easily intreated. He was now 
fit company only for the Devil ; (with whom, 
as we have feen, he had a great deal to tranf- 
acl) indeed, not for him neither, till the more 
fociable Fiend had a little relaxed his mufcles : 
For the firft trick S.atan played him, after they 

(7) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1759, to Sept. 3, 1 74 1 . 


C.X. of the Hol y S p i r i t. 143 

grew acquainted, was, as he himfelf tells us, 
to make him burft out into an immoderate fit of 
Laughter (8). But he was ready to tear himfef 
fo pieces for his frailty. 

Our Apoftle's gentleness may, by this 
time, be eafily guefs'd at. But he faves us the 
trouble. We learn it fully in his encauflic 
Paintings of his Adverfaries. He met with one 
of thefe in a violent ftorm at Sea. Yet the 
common danger of this dreadful hour, could not 
abate the more violent tempeft in his mind — 
" For who mould be there (fays he) but the 

" famous Mr. Gr of Carnarvonfhire. A 

clumfy, overgrown, hardfaced man ; whofe 
countenance I could only compare to that 
(which I faw in Drury Lane, thirty years 
ago) of one of the Ruffians in Macbeth (9) 

1 walked over (fays he) to Egham, 

" where Mr. preached one of the molt 

" miferable fermons I ever heard : Stuff'd fo 
" full of dull, fenfelefs, improbable lies of thofe 
** he complimented with the title of falfe Pro- 
phets (1)." — '* At St. Ives we Were falutcd, 
as ufual, with a Huzza, and a few ftones or 
pieces of dirt :", for want of a better, 
he has dignified even this with the name of a 
Perfecution. lt The P erf edition here (fays he) 
" was' owing in great meafure to the indefa- 
" tigable labours of Mr. Hoblin and Mr. Sim- 
*' mons j Gentlemen worthy to be had in ever- 

(8) See p. 9c of this Difcourfe. 

(9) Journ. from July 20, 1749, to Ocl. 30, 175 1. 

P-3 1 - 

(1; Journ, from Sept. 3, 1741, to 0£l 27, 1743. 
p. 88. 

44 lad- 

144 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

lafting remembrance for their unwearied en- 
deavours to defboy Herefy. 

** Fortunati ambo ! Siquid mea pagina poflit, 
* Nulla dies unquarri memori vos eximet 

" JEVO (2)." 

Here he tells us, without difguife, that it is his 
holy purpofe, to gibbet up the Names of thefe 
his two Perfecutors, to everlafting Infamy : 
While, by the moil unregenerate malice in the 
world, he dips his curfes in the gall of irony ; 
and, that they may ftrilce the deeper, fletches 
them with a prophane clafiical Parody. 

Yet this is the man who fays, — " God forbid 
ct that I mould rail, at a Turk, Infidel, or 
" Heretic. I would point out their Errors, 
" and I truft, in the Spirit of Meek- 
<c ness (3)." Yea, this Spirit was fo ftrong 
in him, that he bleiTes God for his goodnefs, 
in directing all temptations to fall on this fide. % 
which, tho' it may be called his blind fide ■, (as 
he always winks at his injuries j fometimes, 
indeed, to take the better aim) he allures us, 

is not his weak fide " I cannot but ftand 

u amazed at the goodnefs of God. Others are 
<c moft aflaulted on the weak fide of their Soul. 
" But with me it is quite otherwife. If [ 
" have any ftrength at all, it is in forgiv-* 
" ing injuries. And on this very fide am I 

(2) Journ. from .Oct. 17, 1743, to Nov. 17, 1746, 
p. 22. 

(3) Journ. from Novemb. 1, 1730, to Sept. 3, 
1.741. p. 112. 

" aflaulted 

C.X, «//^Holy Spirit. 145 

" afTaulted more frequently than any other (4)." 
By which, with uncommon modefty, he would 
infinuate that tho' his perfecutions abound, yet 
his forgivenefs, in the Spirit of meeknefs^ does 
inuch more abound. 

« St. Paul and St. James may be reconciled. 
But he is a bold man who will undertake to 
reconcile St. Paul and Mr. Wefley. The 
Reader, perhaps, will be better employed in 
turning his attention upon ancient and modern. 
Saintship, at large: Where, in one general 
view, he will fee God's grace in the Firfr, and, 
in the Second, Man's nature feverally afTerting 
their Rights throughout the _whole progrefs. 
The genial Spirit of God could breathe nothing 
but the balm of gentlenefs and cafe. The pefli- 
lent heat of Fanaticifm raifes an inflammation 
and a tumour in the mind, whofe Symptoms 
are an obdurate rigour, and impatience under 
the probe. The Heaven- (truck Heart is affected 
like the purer metals, which eafdy foften, and 
run fpeedily at the touch of the etherial Ray. 
But the Fanatic Spirit, felf-heated by its own 
fiery nature, retains the property of its congenial 
Earth, which grows harder and more intractable 
as it burns. 

(4) Jcurn. from July 20, 1750? to 03l. .28, 1754. 
p. 39. 

H CM A P. 

146 On the Office and Operations B. II. 


TO proceed. St. James, in his account 
of celeftial Wifdom, advances from grace 
to grace. It is peaceable : This is its loweft 
quality. It is Gentle and eafy to be intreated : 
This is a further advance in its Character. 
The firft only implies the not giving umbrage 
or offence to our Brother ; but the fecond 
declares a readinefs to confult his pleafure and 
convenience. The Apoftle's next recommen- 
dation of this Wifdom rifes {till higher : It is, 
he fays, full of Mercy and good fruits. 
It would have been a poor account of the 
Wifdom from above, that it amounted only to 
an obfequious cafe and gentlenefs of Manners : 
A difpofition of heart little more than the fha- 
dovv or out line of Benevolence, that har- 
mony of the affections, which the Chriftian 
Faith calls Charity; and which the Apottle, 
by a beautiful periphrafis, terms, the being full 
of mercy and giod fruits. 

Let us enquire then into the mercy and 
good fruits of modern Saintfhip. The mercy 
of the Sufferer is forgive nefs \ The mercy of the 
Inflicter is forbearance. 

Of Mr. Wedcfsforgivenefs under fufferings, 
we have feen many examples in the Language 
he bellows on his Oppofers; who pafs with him 
under no ether tide than that of the Devil's 
Servants and the Devil's Children: Of his for- 
bearance, when compleatly armed with the 

2 Ven- 

C. XI. of the Holy Spirit. 147 

Vengeance of Heaven, we have feen many- 
more, in his diipatching the Principal of thefe 
Children of the Devil, without mercy, to their 
Father. For one fure mark of the hypocon- 
driac fpirit under a Fanaiic ferment, is the 
readineis to difpenfe, and the rafhnefs to fling 
ahout, the exterminating Judgments of God : 
And when an Enthufiaft calls down fire from 
Heaven, the leaft of his concern is, his being 
heard. So that every difafter, befalling his Op- 
pofers, is confidered by him as God's owning the 
Cdufe, and he would efteem it ingratitude to his 
Matter to give it any other name than that of 
a Judgment ; juft as JVitches, when a mifchief 
happens to thofe whom they have often curfed, 
afcribe it to the Avenger of their quarrels, their 
trufty Coadjutor the Devil. For under the 
agitations of wrath and revenge, the fruits of 
this Spirit are much the fame, whether Heaven 
or Hell be called to their afnftance. Do I 
wrong thefe Men ? See what has been fa id 
above of this matter f : and if that does not 
fuflice, turn again to Mr. J. Wefley's 'Journals, 
u Wednefday 15. I went to Bedlam at the 
<; repeated requeft of Mr. S. who had been 
cc confined there above two years. This wa> 
" the Perfon, who, while he was fpeaking 
44 againft my Brother and me, to the Society 
" at Kingfvvood, was in a moment Jlruck ravin? 
11 /v.\. But, it feems, God is at length intr eat ed 
iC for him, and has reftored him to a found 

^ mind (i)." Again, " One J n H n. 

u a weaver zealous for the Church ail 1 

f P. 106— io?. 

(1) fourn. from Oct.. zy f 1743; to Nov. i;, \-j fi- 
P 33- 

H 2 ••• again^ 



148 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

againft DilTenters of every denomination 

He laboured much to convince his acquain- 
tance that the Jlrange Jits, into which people at 
the Societies fell, was a delufion of the Devil. 
" We were going home when one met us in the 

66 flreet, and informed us, That J n H n 

cc was fallen raving mad. Between one and 

" two, I came in and found him on the floor, 
" the room being full of people, whom his wife 
cc would have kept out, but he cried aloud, 
" No, let the world fee the juft judgment of 
" God. Two or three men were holding him 
" as well as they could. He immediately fixed 
<c his eyes upon me, and ftretching out his 
" hands, cried, Oh ! this is he who, I faid, 
*' was a deceiver of the People. But God 
<c has overtaken me (2)." — And again, — " I was 
*' informed of an awful providence. A poor 
<c wretch who was here the Ian: week, curling, 
<c blafpheming, and labouring with all his might 
<c to hinder the vjord of God, had afterwards 
<c boafted to many, that he would come again 
" on Sunday, and no man mould flop his mouth 
ec then. But on Friday God laid his hand upon 
" him, and on Sunday he was buried (3); — I 
** faw a poor man, (once joined with us) who 
t£ wanted nothing in this world, but the peace 
the world cannot give. A day or two before, 
he hanged himfelf but was cut down before 
he was dead. He has been crying out ever 
fince, God had left him, becaufe he had left the 


(2) Journ. from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
p. 44. 

(3) Journ. from Nov, 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741^ 
p. 59, 60. 

" Child- 


C. XL of the Holy SpirI t. 149 

" Children of God (4)." But he is inexorable 
to all who apofhtize. — " I buried the body of 

u Lucy Gcdfh'ill after prcfnng toward the 

" mark for more than two years She becalm 

c< weary 'and faint 1 put her out of the band, 

" God bleffed this to her foitf." But 

how ? " She fell down on her knees, and 

" delivered up her foul and body into the hands 
" of God. In the inftant the u\q of all her 
<c limbs was taken away, and fhe was in - a 
" burning fever. — She cried cut on Satan— - 
c was rn ddrlcntfi — was in light — clofed her eyes 

nd died (5)." ci I was pre fled' to vifit 

" Nicholas Palmer, cue wka had ated 

ct from us % and beh ived with a great biiternefs, 
" til) God laid ris band upon him. He had 
46 fent fbr me feveral times, faying he could 
u not die in peace till he had 1 — — \ 

" wreflled with God in Behalf- -his foul 

M was comforted ; and a few hours after quietly 
« fell afleep (6)." 

Their good fruits come next to be con- 
fidered. Mr. J. Wefley^s idea of true Rcligicn 
doth not promife much. He faith, " It doth 
" not confift in any or all thefe three things, 
•* the living harmlefs — ufing the means of Grace 
<{ — and doing much good. A man, he fays, 
M may do all this, and yet have no true Reii- 
" gion at all (7)." 

(4) Journ. from Ocl. 27, 1743, to Nov. 17, 1746. 
p. 91. 

(5) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1 741, to OQ.. zj, 1743. 
p. 71. (6) Journ. ibid. p. 5. 

(7) Journ. from Nov. I, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741* 
p. 1 1, 12. 

H 3 Yet 

150 On the Qjfice and Operations B. IT. 

Yet St. James talks another language. Pure 
Religion (and, I fuppofe, pure and true differ 
only in found) and undefiled before God and the 
Father, is this, to vifit the father iefs and widows 
in their ajfliclion, and te keep himfelf urfpoticd 
from the World (8). 

Now, what is mjittng the father lefs and wi- 
dows, but the doing much good ? And what is 
keeping one's felf urfpottcd from the world, but 
fifing the means of Grace f In what a fearful 
taking then, muft Mr. Wefley's Zealots be, 
who, milled by the Bible, have fo long mi (taken 
true Religion r The lead it will do is to drive 
them to defpair. But this is the very ftate in 
which their Mailer delights to take them up. 
And his aflurance, that true Religion confifts in 
Gofs dwelling and reigning in the Soul (o), foon 
makes way lor a happier madnefs : 7 he Jaws 
of IJell begin 10 clufe, the Gates of Heaven 
to open.- — But, what the overlaboured imagi- 
nation fuffered, during the courfe of this ope- 
ration, requires the hand of a Matter to cSefcribe. 
I fhall give it therefore in Mr. J. Wefley's own 
words : and as thefe his fpiritual cures, (which 
he repoits with the exaclnefs of an Hippocrates 
or a Sidenham) are all the good fruits he 
pretends to, he will not. be difpleafed to have 
a few of the choicefl of them fet in a fair li°ht. 

The condition of his Audience, on his firft 
operation upon them, is thus graphically de- 
fcribed — " I preached in an open place, two or 

(8) St. James, c. i. ver. 27. 

(9) P. 11. ut fup. 

" three 

CXI. f/^ Holy Spirit. 151 

M three miles from Newcaftle. The wind was 
" high and extremely (harp : but I faw none go 
M away till I went. Yet I obferved none Teemed 
" to be much convinced : only stunn'd, as 
" if cut IN the head (1)." This was in 
order. Tbey were firft to be Jiunned ; the 
Watchman, Reafon, was to be laid afleep before 
he could let fire to their Imaginations. But he 
brines them to their fe'nfes with a vengeance, 
the vengeance of the Devil. " I felt the fire 
of Hell already kindled in my breafr, 
(fays one) and all my body was in as much 
pain as if I had been in a burning fiery fur- 
nace (2)." — " I was interrupted (fays he) by 
the cries of one who was pricked at the heart" 
One of thofe, I fuppofe, who had before been 
cut in the head: And having now got poiTeifion 
both of the head and heart, the game begins. 

 " Another perfon drop'd down a little 

w boy near him was feized in the fame man- 






ner. A young man who flood behind, fixed 
his eyes on him, and funk down himfelf as 
" one dead. But foon began to roar out and 
u beat himfelf on the ground, fo that fix men 
" could fcarcely hold him. — Mean while many 
" others began to cry out to the Saviour of all, 
M that he would come and help them, inio- 
" much that all the houfe, and indeed all l)i3 
" fireet for fome fpace, was in an uproar.— I 
" v/as called after fupper to one who feeling in 
" herfelf fuch a Conviction as {lie had never 
" known before, had run out of the Society 

(1) Journ. from Sept 3, 1741, to 0&. ij, 1743. 
p. 82. 

(z) Ibid. p. 83. 

H 4 « in 

152 On the Office and Operations B. If. 

" in all hafte, that Jke might not expofe herfelf. 
M But the hand of God followed her ft ill, 
" &c. x (3)"- This fear of expofing herfelf Mr. 
J. Wefley, we fee, takes much amifs. He 
Ipeaks with fame refentment, but more con- 
tempt, of her delicacy. Yet it feems hard that 
he would not fuifer the young Woman to un- 
derfland the nature of her cvjn feelings^ and 
confequently to be the bed judge of the danger 
me was in, of expofing herfelf. — " Forty or Fifty 
" of thofe who were feeking falvation, defired 
<s leave to fpend the night together in the fo- 
" cietyroom. Before ten, I left them, and laid 
tc down." — For our Engineer had fo amply 
provided them with combuftibles, and Co fitly 
laid his train, that he knew they would take 
fire from their own -collifions. He -was not 
difnppointed. — " Between two and three in the 
morning he was awaked, and defired to 
come down flairs. I immediately (fays he) 
heard fuch a confufed noife, as if a number 
of men were all putting to the Sword. It 
tc increased, when I came into the room, and 
u began to pray, &c. (4)" — " Thence I went 
" to a poor woman who had been long in de~ 
tC fair, i was glad to meet with Mrs. R. there ; 
<c the perfon mentioned in Mr. Whitefield's 
4< Journal, who after three years madxefs (so 
«* called) was fo deeply convinced of Sin, 
M Sx. (5)"~" Another of Dr. Monro's pa- 

(3) Joarn. from Aug.- 12, "738, to Nov. 1, 1 79. 

(4.) Journ. from Nov. r, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741. 

p. fi. 5 2 - 

(5) Journ. from Aug. \z } 1733, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
p 6-. 

M tients 

< c 

C. XT. of the Holy Spirit. 153 

<c tients came to defire my advice; I found no 
" reafon to believe me had been otherwife maa 
<c than everyone is who is deeply convinced of 
" Sin (6)." — cc A middle-aged woman defired 
" me to return thanks for her to God ; who, 
<c as many witnefTes then prefent teftifled, was, 
" a day or two before, really diftraclcd, and, 
<c as fuch, tied down in her bed. But upon 
" prayer made for her, fhe was inftantly relieved 
" and reftored to a found mind (7 J-"— " I could 
<c not but be under fome concern with regard to 
" one or two perfons, who were tormented in 
" an unaccountable manner, and feemed to 
" be indeed Lunatics, as w r ell as fore vexed (8)." 
Here, for the firft time, Humanity feems to have 
recovered a little of its rights, amidir. thefe fcenes 
of horrour. Mr. J. Wesley himfelf confeffes, 
be could not but be under fo?ne concern. But in- 
vigorated by the new Man, he foon fhakes of? 
the human pity of the old, and makes a joke even 
of the very Lunacy, he had pretended to lament. 
u Two or three who were at the Devandeti 
(a high hill two or three miles from Chepitow) 
are gone quite di/lraffed, i. e. they mourn and 
refufe to be comforted till they have Redemp- 
tion, he. (9)" — " I defired one who had 
ken afRiclion herfelf to go and vifit Mrs. 

G in Bedlam (put there by her hufband 

as 2. mad woman) where it pleafed God greatly 
to knit their hearts together, and with his 

O J 

comforts to refrefh their fouls (1)." ~ 



(6) Ibid. p. 8*. (7) Ibid. p. 4. 

(8) Ibid. p. 88. (9) Ibid. p. 90. 

(1) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 174!. 


H 5 « Amongft 




154 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

cc Amongft the hearers was one, who fometime 
before had been deeply convinced of her un- 
godlinefs, infomuch that fhe cried out day 
and night, Lord fave or I perijh. All the 
neighbours agreeing that fhe was Jlark mad, 
her hufband put her into a Phyfician's hands, 
who blooded her largely, and laid on feveral 
<c blifiers. But all this proving without fuc- 
" cefs, fhe was in a fhort time judged to be in- 
" curable. When Mrs. Johnfon came, fhe 
" foon faw the nature of the difeaf:-, havine 
*' hcrfelf gone thro' the fame. She ordded all 
lt the medicines to be thrown away, and ex- 
" horted the Patient to look unto J ejus (2)." 

And with this fpiritual madnefs he is fo ena- 
moured, that he calls it, when at its height, 
a glorious time. " I preached at Weaver's 
" Hall. It was a glorious time. Several 
<c drop'd to the ground, as if {truck with ligh- 
<c tening, &c. &c. (3)" And where this is 
wanting, tho' every other thing be to his with, 
he is fo diflatisfied, that it is as much as ever 
his fubmimon to the divine Will can obtain of 
him, to let God do as fcemeth him good. — cc I faw 
" none of that triumph of Faith, which has 
i; been fo common in other places. But the 
• r c Believers go on calm and Jieacly. — Let God 


But though Mr. J. Wefley does fo ably, ii> 
this new Trade of turning fools into mad-men^ 

(2) Jcurn. from Sept. 3, 1741, to Oft. 27, 17^3. 


(3) Journ. ibid. p. 27, (4) Journ. i*bid . p. 78. 





CXI. c///^ FIoly Spirit. 155 

yet his Craft's-mafter is certainly one Mr. 
Wh — y, of whom Mr. Wefley tells this extra- 
ordinary tale. " A poor woman gave an ac~ 
" count of what I think ought never to be 
" forgotten." Truly, I think fo too — <£ It wa^ 
four years, fhe faid, fince her Son, Peter 
Shaw, then nineteen or twenty years old, 
by hearing a Sermon of Mr. Wh — y, fell 
into great uneafinefs. She thought he was 
ill, and would have lent for aPhyfician. But 
he faid, No, no, fend for Mr. Wh — y. 
" He was fent for, and came ; and, after afking 
a few queftions, told her, The Boy is mad, get 

a Coach and carry him to Dr. M , ufe 

my name, J have fent fever al fuch to him (5)." 

Who this Mr. Wh — y is, or what he \%, 

I know not. But, w T e fee, he fends his People 
to Monro, with the fame unconcern in fearch 
of loft brains, that one would enquire of Sir 
J.Fielding for a loft portmanteau. 

Such are the exploits which Mr. J. Wefley 
calls, in the place laft quoted, blessings from 
God : and which therefore we may well call 
the good fruits of his Miniftry ; thofe by 
which St. James directs us to judge of his 
Mifjion. For what the Apoftle calls good fruits, 
namely, doing much good, Mr. J. Wefley plainly 
tells us belong not to true Religion : What be- 
longs not to true Religion he rightly deems 
fuperfluous : And whatever is fuperfluous he- 
makes folemn refolutions to avoid (6). 

(5) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1759, to Sept. 3; 174-1. p. 56.- 

(6) Jou;n. from Feb. 1, 1737-8, to his return fro.n 
Germany, p. 13. 

H 6 CHA P, 

156 On the Office and Operations B. IT. 


ITHERTO the Marks delivered by St. 
James, to judge of a pretended Miflio- 
nary from Heaven, confider him as urging his 
pretenfions fairly and with good faith ; tho' 
poflibly in a fanatic or enthufiaftic way : But 


without hypocrisy, — reprefents the preten- 
der to fuch a character as capable of acting in 
a mafk, and ufing the mere worldly arts, of 
fraud and deceit. And this fuppofition is made 
with admirable judgment and knowlege of hu- 
man Nature. 

Enthusiasm, fo indifpenfable a requifite in 
the fuccefsful leading of a Sect, muft always be 
accompanied with craft and knavery. There is 
a neceflity for this odd combination ; and the 
thing itfelf, as frrange as it may feem, is very 
naturally to be accounted for. 

A meer cool-headed Projector, without any 
tincture of innate enthufiafm, can never fucceed 
in his Defigns, becaufe fueh a one can never 
exhibit ihofe furprizing freaks, which a heated 
imagination, working on a difordered, tho', for 
this purpofe,///y framed temper of body, fo fpe- 
cioufly produces. For the fpirits of the People, 
who are to be taken in, can never be allured but 
by raifing their admiration, and keeping up their 
confidence in an infpired Leader. Befides, new 
doctrines and new ideas are never fo readily 
received as when the Teacher of them is in 


C. XII. c//fe Holy Spirit. 157 

earneft, and believes Hlmfelf: For then there 
is fomething fo natural in his conduct as eafily 
to conciliate belief; there is fomething fo allur- 
ing that it acts even like an Incantation. 

On the other hand, a mere Enthufiaft^ who, 
by virtue of this faculty, hath gone fo far in 
his purpofe as to raife the admiration, and to 
captivate the fpirits, of the People, muft here 
begin to fail, if he be without the other quality, 
feclarian Craft : For his fanaticifm not being 
under the controul of his judgment^ he will want 
the proper dexterity to apply the different views, 
tempers, and purfuits of the People, now en- 
flamed and ready to become his Instruments, to 
the advancement of his Projects. 

But when thefe two talents of Fraud and Fa- 
naticifm unite to furnifh out the Leader of a 
Sect, great will be the fuccefs of his under- 
takings. And when fuch a one feels the 
ftrength of this union, it is no wonder he mould 
be ready to cry out with Mr. J. Wefley, Give 
me wherdn to J?and, and I will Jhake the whole 
earth (1). For now the fallies of his Enthu- 
fiafm will be fo corrected by his Cunning, as to 
ftrengthen and confirm his fupernatural pre- 
tences ; and the cold and How advances of a too 
cautious policy will be warmed and pufhed for- 
ward by the force of his Fanaticifm. His craft 
will enable him to elude the enquiries and ob- 
jections of the more Rational ; and his^Vifions 
will irrecoverably fubdue all the warmer Nod- 
dles. In a word, they will mutually fupport 

(1) See p. 96 of this Difcourfe. 


158 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

and flrengthen each other's force, and cover 
and repair each other's defects. St. Jero.n feems 
to have had a true idea of this extraordinary 
combination, when he faid, " Nullus poteft 
" Haerefin ftruere, riifi qui ardentis inge- 
" nii eft, et habet dona naturae (2)."" 
Which may be thus paraphrased, — No Heretic 
will ever be able to raife a Serf, but be, in zvhofe 
coriflitution, Nature has enabled Fraud and Fana- 
ticifm to acl in concert. % 

Several things concur to facilitate this happy 
conjunction. An Enthuftaft confiders himfelf 
as an Inftrument employed by ProviJence to 
attain fome great End, for the fake of which 
he was fent out. This makes him diligent in 
bis work ; impatient under any let or obftruc- 
tion ; and attentive to every method for re- 
moving it. Perfuaded of the neceftity of the 
End, and of the divine Commiinon intruded to 
the Inftrument, he begins to fancy that luch a 
one, for the obtaining fo great a purpofe, is dif- 
penfed with, in breaking, nay is authorized to 
break, the common Laws of Morality • which, 
in the cant of thofe times, when Fanaticifm 
had its full play, was called the being above 
Ordinances. In the firft application of thcfe 
means, the People are the Dupes of their Leader: 
But the fuccefs being frequently far beyond 
even his own conception, he becomes, in his 
turn, the Dupe of himfelf; and begins in good 
earneft to believe that the trick which he pfay'd 
them, was indeed not of his own contrivance,. 

(2) See Div. Legat, B. iii. Seel. 6. 


C. XII. of the Hol y Spi r it. jcg 

but the infpired irrigation of Heaven (3). Thrs 
will explain an obfcure paffage of Tacitus, 
where fpeaking of this fort of Character, in his 
oracular way, he fays, fikgunt simul cre- 
duntque. Let me add, that this feems to 
have been much the cafe of Oliver Crom- 
well from his firft mounting into the Saddle 
and the Pulpit, to his laft reveries on his death- 
bed (4). 

Again, Entbujiaftn is a kind of ebullition or 
critical ferment of the mind, which a vigorous 
nature fometimes works thro', and by flow de- 
grees, is able to furmount. Hence the moil 
fuccefsful Impoftors, who have fet out in all 
the blaze of Fanaticifm, have compleated their 
Schemes amidft the cool depths and ftiilnefs of 
Politics. Tho' this, in fome degree, be com- 
mon to them all, yet I know of none who ex- 
emplifies the cafe fo fully as the famous Igna- 
tius Loiola. This wonderful Perfon be^an 
his extafies in the mire, and finifned his courier 

(3) That great obferver of Nature, Cervantes, 
having made Sancho (to fave himfelf from the vexa- 
tion of a fleevelefs errand) palm upon his Mailer a 
fuppofuitious Dulcinea; When *he Squire comes to 
relate this adventure to the Dutchefs, {he extolls his 
ingenuity fo highly, that he begins to fufpeft himfeif 
to be triGked into his own contrivance ; and that the 
Inchanters had prefented him with a true Dulcinea 
in mafquerade, when he thought he was impofing a 
falfe one barefaced on his Mafter. 

(4) Thurloe tells us, that the Proteclcr, on his 
death-bed, foretold his recovery-, as an infpiration 
from Heaven. Had it proved true, he had gained 
much by obtaining to himfelf the ufeful Character of 
Prophet r and he Toll nothing by the conviction of its 



1 60 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

in the direction and execution of Councils, 
which even in his own life-time, were ready to 
give Law to Chriftendom. Mr. J. Wefley ap- 
pears to have ftudied this great Mafter well 1 
tho', by a common practice of thofe who fet up 
for themfelves, he kicks away thefteps by which 
he mounted. " I rode (fays he) to Oxford 

" in riding I read over that furprifing 

" book, the life of Ignatius Loiola. Surely 
*■ one of the greateft men that ever was en- 
gaged in the fupport of a bad caufe. I won- 
ier any man Jhould judge him to be an Enthufiajl. 
" No : but he knew the people with whom he 
" had to do. And fetting out like Count Z. 
** with a full persuasion that he might use 


" God (4)." Now I defire to know, how 
any, but an Enthusiast, could have a full 
perfuafion, i. e. be perfuaded, bona fide, that he 
might ufe guile to promote the glory of God? Or 
how any, but a Knave, could fucceed in this 
perfuafwn ? — Cicero obferves that the Eye, which 
fees all other things, fees not it felf : This in- 
ftance will fhew it to be equally true, that the 
Mind, which plays fuch ftrange tricks, is often 
very inattentive to its own frame and opera- 

Modern Saint/kip then being fo fubject to thefe 
odd traverfes, it is well for both Societies, 
that we have an unerring Rule whereon to efti- 
rr.ate its Claim. For the Apoftle having de- 
clared that the wifdovi from above is without par- 

(4) Journ. from Sept. 5, 1741, to Oft. 27, 1743. 

P 6 7«. 


C. XII. f///^ Holy Spirit. 161 

tiality and without Hypocrisy, if fuch 
qualities be found in thofe who pretend to de- 
rive all, immediately, from above^ we need no 
further evidence of the impofture. And, now, 
having hitherto ufed this famed Head of his Sect 
for an Example, it would be unkind to drop 
him here, and net fufrer him to finiili, as he 
began, his Apoftolical career. 

Partiality conufts in difpenfmg an unequal 
?neafure y in our transactions with Others : 

And Hypocrisy in attempting- to cover that 
unequal ?neaj'ure by prevarication and falfe co- 

The Reader muft have been veiv inattentive 
to what hath been produced from Mr. J. Wef- 
ley/s Journals, not to have obferved the 
i:.:.ny convincing' marks of the writer's partiality 
and hypocrify. The pallages have indeed been 
given to convict him of other, fanatic qualities, 
equally inconfiftent with the wifdom zuhich is from 
above-, but many of them will, at the fame 
'time, ferve to -(hew how ably he availed himfelf 
of thefe two political Accomplifhments. 

We have feen in general, that his Followers 
are always the Children of God; and his Oppo- 
fers, the Children of the Dtvil. But the fir ft 
being directed by inward feelings and the im- 
pulfe of an inflamed fancy, and the other by 
the outward teftimony of Scripture, interpreted 
by human reafon, it is no great wonder that 
Mr. J. Wefley, who faw them fo much unlike, 
fhould marfhal them under two different Leaders. 






(?» //?<? Office and Operations B. II. 

what fhall we think, when we find him 
\,. [ing the word of his Friends that his Enemies 
I oi h;m, as foon as ever .he lees them 
preftimeto play over his own pranks in any 
other Name ? If they follow not him, they are 
Fanatics and Enthuftajls, how like foever they be 
in all other things to their ghoftly Pattern ? — 
I was with two perfons (fays Mr. J. Wefley) 
who, I doubt, are properly Enthv.JiaJls. For 
firft they think to attain the end without the 
*' means, which is enthujiafm, properly lo 
called : again they think themfelves infpired 
by God, and are not. But falfe imaginary 
infpiration is enthujiafm. That theirs is only 
imaginary infpiration appears hence, it contra- 
dicts the Law and the leftimony (5)." Thefe 
are wife words : but what do they amount to? 
Only to this, That thefe two Perfons would not 
take out their Patents of Infpiration from his Of- 
fice ; and, therefore, he has advertifed them, for 
Counterfeits. However, thus much we gain 
by them, that all modern pretences to Infpira- 
tion are, by the acknowlegement of Mr. J. 
Wefley himfelf, to be tryed by the Law and the 
Teftimony. He cannot, then, furely refufe to 
have his own pretenfions tried before that Judi- 
cature to which we have appealed him. 

Mifs Gr , one of the holy, had told ano- 
ther Mifs, that Mr. J. Wefley was a Papift % 
perhaps on account of the honour he does to 
auricular confeJfion y one kind of which he recom- 
mends to his bands. Upon this, Mifs Gr 

(5) Journ. from Aug 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739* 
p. 23. 


C. XII. of the H o l y Spirit. i 63 

is anathematized. And we are told, that, in 
confequence, " flic had lately been raving triad; 
M that as fuch, fhe was tied down in her 
r bed (6)." Yet all thefe circumflanees cf 
madnefs have, in the opinion of the ableft Pby- 
ficians, befallen Mr. J. Wefley's favourite 
Saints j whom he has vindicated from that Op- 
probrium ; he has laughed at the ignorance of 
the faculty; and declared thofe equivocal marks 
to be the conftant Symptoms of the new birth. 

He pronounces Sentence of Enthujiaftn upon 
another: And tells us, Wherefore, without 
any difguife,- — " Here (fays he) I took leave of 
t; a poor, mad, original Enthufioft, who had 
" been fcattering abroad lies in every quar- 
M rer (7)." By which we find, that, even in 
Mr. J. Wefley's own opinion, Fanatlclfm and 
Knavery are very near neighbours. 

Ci I had much converfa ion with Mr. Simp- 
r fon an original E nth ufiajl.—Y defired him in 
c; the evening to give an exhortation— -He di-J 
<c fo, and fpoke many good things , in a manner 
" peculiar to hlmfclf. When he had done, I 
<c fumm'd up what he had faid, methodizing 
" and explaining it. O what pity is it that 
tc this well-meaning man fhould ever fpeak 
" without an Interpreter ! (8)"— and that Mr. 
J. Wefley fhould not be he ! 

(6) Journ. from Sept. 3, 1741, to Oft. 27, 1743. 

P- 73-4- 

(7) Journ. from Oft. 27, 1743, to Nov. 17, 1746. 


(3) Journ. ibid p. c.u 


1 64 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

In thefe two laft pafTages, we are prefcnted; 
with two Original Enthusiasts. But 
how differently do we find them treated ! The 
fuft is accufed of doing the work of the Devil, 
of fpreading lies of his Matter j on which ac- 
count his Matter takes his leave of him : a gentle 
exprettion, to figni fy, the th rutting him out,: 
head and fhoulders, from the Society of Saints : 
The other likewife, whofe original enthufiafm is 
made to confift only in want of Method, or, to 
fpeak more properly, want of Methodifm, is only 
lamented, as having the ill luck, to f peak without 
an Interpreter. That is, without having hi$ 

.trine regulated on the dictates cf his Matter. 
But the Firifc fat his Matter at defiance : the Se- 
cond /poke many good things, that is, he proTefied 
a doctrine agreeable to Mr. Wefiey ; indeed, in 
a manner peculiar to binfif that is, not on Mr. 
Wciley's Authority, but his own. Nov/, there 
were fome hopes of Him; but none at all of 
the other. Therefore tho' they are pro- 
nounced Original Enthusiasts alike, yet 
we mutt diftinguifh, and rate their Titles very 
differently. The firtt: Original was of his ori- 
ginal the Devil, a fcatterer abroad of lies in every 
quarter: The fecond was worth recovering. 
His Original Enthufiafm was a foundation, like 
Original Sin, to ere£t upon it a monument of 

But the uioft genuine inflance of enthufiafm'^ 
which, he tells us, he will give, and which, 
without doubt, he does give, with the utmoft 
reluctance, is the following. He preached at 
Tanfiehl-Leigh.--- U But fo dead, fenfelefs, unaf- 
ct fected a congregation (fays he) have I fcarce 

c< feen, 





C. XII. of the Holy Spirit. 165 

feen, except at Wickham. Whether Gofpel 
or Law, or Englifh or Greek, feemed all 
one to them." Yet he fpoke, he tells us, 
ftrong rough words. But why is want of fen ft 
put into this rough defcription of their unrege- 
nerate State ? He owns, that numbers of the 
Godly were without any. And why would he 
elicite fenfe from thefe Gentiles, when, upon 
their converfion, they were finally to be deprived 
of it, in extacies and new births. However, as un- 
grateful as the Soil appeared,—-" Yet the feed 
"Town even there was not quite loft. For on 
Thurfday morning, between four and five, 
John Brown, then of Tanfield- Leigh, was 
waked out of fleep by the voice that raileth the 
" dead -, and ever fince he has been full of love 
" and peace and joy in the Floly Ghoft." But 
now lee what comes of waking thefe feepers. 

This fame J — B- who had received the 

Holy Ghoft but at the latter end of November, 
became Co freakifn by the beginning of Decem- 
ber, that he even forced Mr. J. Wefley (for 
the honour of Methodifm itfelf) to pronounce 
him likewife a genuine Enthufiaft, and to throw 
afide this precious Saint, as flawed bv over- 
bakeing, amongft the ufelefs rubbifh of his 

" I was both furprifed and grieved" — Here, 
Reader, thou mayeft fafely believe him---" at 

" a genu ine inftance of Enlhufajm. J — B 

" of Tanfield-Leigh, who had received a sense 
" of the love of God a few days before, came 
" :iding thro' the town, hollowing and Jbouting" 
[the infeparable fymptoms of the new birth'] 
" and driving all the People before him, telling 

" them, 

166 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

<c them, God had told him he fhould be a King, 
" and jh'Aild tread all his. enemies under his 
« feet (9). 

N " 

Now this being the only fruit of the feed 
Cpivn in this place, had it not been better to have 
let thefe honeft people alone ? who appear 
amiable, even thro' the farcaftic ahire he lb li- 
berally pours over them.- — " At Wickham, I 
" fpoke ftrong rough words : but 1 did not per- 
6i ceive that any regarded what was fpoken. 
cc The People indeed were exceeding quiet, 
" and the cold kept them from falling afeep ; till, 
" before two, I left them very well fatis fed with 
" the Preacher and zvith themf elves (1)." And 
why fhould they not ! Why is this poor fatif- 
faclion, in themfelves, which they had fo libe- 
rally exprelTed towards him, begrudged them ? A 
reafcnable Man defires no more, than that his 
friends be fatisfied with him ; he does not expect, 
ray, he would be forry, to find them diiTatisfied 
with themfelves. But fuch an equality of mind 
and meafure, as in the good people of Wickham, 
is deftru&ive of ail the fchemes of a Fanatic 
Leader : Who muft find, or mahe^ a People 
defperate, and ready to hang themfelves, before 
they can be prepared and rightly tempered for 
the farred Mold of Methodifm. 

We fhall end, where every Fanr.tic Leader 
ends,— -with his Hypocrisy. And if cvafion 
and prevarication^ in the moil eiTential points of 

(9) Journ. fiom Sept. 3, 1741-, to Ofr. 27, 1743. 

P- 79 

(r) Ibid. p. 78. 


C. XII. of the Holy Spirit. 167 

his Miniftry, may be called by that name, I 
cannot fee how Mr. J. Wefley v/ill efcape from 
having this concluding mark of impofture fixed 
upon him. 

I. We have wearied ourfelves and Readers, 
in recounting the numberlefs Miracles by 
which He and his affairs have been fupported, 
amidfl: a cloud of JVitncffes well difpofed to mag- 
nify the fcene. Yet, after all this, with a 
worldly prudence which one would not 
expect in a man who calls it the myflery of Ini- 
quity, he thinks fit to fecure himfelf a retreat, 
in cafe all thefe wonders mould become proble- 
matical. For after having heaped them upon 
one another, Olympus-high, throughout nine 
copious Journals, he fneaks away under the 
cover of a puny Wonder, and leaves the de- 
fence of all his Giant-miracles in the lurch ! 
" About five (fays he) I began, near the Keel- 
u man's Hofpital, many thoufands (landing 
u round, or fitting on the Grafs. The wind 
" was high juft before ; but fcarce a breath 
f was felt, ali the time we aflembled before 
u God. I praife God for this alio. Is it 
" Enthusiasm to see God in every Be- 
tl me fit which we receive (2) ?" Certainly it is 
not. The Enthufiafm confifts in bel evino: 
thofe benefit i to be miraculoufly conferred by a 
change in the eftablifhed order of Nature. 
Fbis is the Enihufiafm with which he is charged ; 
and this Charge, almoft every page of his Jour- 
nals will fupport. But here, by the neateft 

(2) Journ. from July 20, 1750, to Oft. 28, 17^4. 
p. 18. 


1 68 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

addrefs, he covertly infmuates, (as a Word to 
the Wife) that he meant no more by his Mira- 
cles , than the feeing of God in every benefit we re- 
ceive. A certain Philofopher (2) of great name 
fancied he had explained the nature of vifion 
well, on the principle of feeing all things in God. 
And if the World be content to be paid in fuch 
coin, our Divine will not be long in its debt. 
He can explain Miracles, as Well as the other 
explained Nature, by the knack he has of feeing 
God in all things. This then goes a great way 
towards ridding his hands of Miracles when the 
Inquifitive become troublefome. But as he well 
knew it might be faid of him, " If you part 
with your Miracles, you ftrip yourfelf of the 
credentials of your Million," he has a fetch for 
thisalfo; a Friend to help him at a dead lift; 
whofe opinion, " he wifhes ail calm and im- 
" partial men would confider — Not to eitablim 
" the power of working Miracles as the great 
" Criterion of a divine Million ; when Scrip- 
ture teaches us that the agreement of doclrines 
with truth as taught in thofe Scriptures, is the 
only infallible Rule (3)." Suppofe now any 
fenfe could be drawn out of this gallimatias of 
Scripture's teaching that the agreement of doclrines 
with truth as taught in thofe Scriptwrs, is the only 
infallible rule : And that it might mean, " that 
Scripture teaches us, that the conformity of its 
doctrines with the truths discoverable by natural 
light, is the only Criterion." I then afk, 
Where Scripture teacheth this? I afk it, I 

(2) PJalebrariche. 

(3) Journ. from Aug. 1 2, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739c. 

P- 7 2 - ^ 

3 by* 


C. XII. c/^Holy Spirit. 169 

fa)', Becaufe Reason teacheth another thing : 
for, from the Premiflfes, of the confomiity of 
Scripture doclrines ivitb truth, Her Conclufionis 
only this, That Scripture doctrines are true ; 
not that they were immediately derived from 
Heaven. I am afraid therefore, that Scripture 
is here much fcandalized, by making it talk a 
language fo diiTonant to Reafon. And I am the 
more confirmed in this opinion, fmce Scrip- 
ture, from the mouth of Jefus himfelf, exprefly 
fays, that the power of working miracles, and not 
the conformity of Scripture doSlrines to truth, is the 
great criterion of a divine MiJJion, The words 
cf Jefus are thefe : « If I had not done amontrlt 
" them the works which no other man did, they 
i{ had not had Sin : But now have they both {een 
f* and hated me and my Father (4)." But 
why, in cafe no miracles had been worked amonoft 
them, had they not had Sin ? For this reafon, 
and only for this, that, without Miracles, there 
was no fufficier.t criterion of a divine Mission. 
And Sin could not be imputed to them for re- 
jecting a Character which did not bring its full 
credentials with it. From what I can fee then, 
Mr. J. Wefley muft either flick to his Miracles, 
or give up his Mijfion, 

II. But he fhifts and doubles no lefs with re- 
gard to the Extacies, and the New- birth of his 
Saints. Sometimes they are undoubtedly of 
God ; fometimes again as certainly of the Devil : 
but he is conftant in this, that Natural caufa 
have no hand in them. The reafon is plain : 
He could make both God and the Devil con- 
ducive to his purpofes; but Nature is the 

, (4) Johrjch. xv. ver 24. 

* fure 

170 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

fure deftru&ion of every fanatic frolic. -The 
Saints met in Fetter-lane to humble thernfelves 
before God for grieving the Holy Spirit. -To 
the feveral offences afligned, Mr. J. Wefley 
adds — " But above all, by blaspheming his 
" works amongft us, imputing it either to 
*« Nature, to the force of imagination and 
" animal Spirits, or even the delufion of the 
" Devil. — At that hour we found God wi:h 
" us as at the firft. Some fell projlr ate upon tht 
iX ground. Others burft cut, as with one confent> 
<c into a loud praife and thankfgiving. And many 
" openly testified, There had been no fuch day 
" as this, fince January the nrit, preceding (5)." 
t— <c On Friday many were deeply convinced ; 
* c but none were delivered from that painful 
*' conviction. The Children came to the birth ; 
" but there was not ftrength to bring forth. 
<c / fear we have grieved the Spirit of the jealous 
" God by quejlhning his work (6)." 

— " Innumerable cautions were given me not 

€i to regard Vifions or Dreams, or to fancy peo- 

" pie had remifllon of Sins, becaufe of their 

** Cries, or tears, or outward profefltons. — The 

*' Sum of my anfwer was as follows: You^ 

** deny that God does now work thefe effecls : 

** at leafl that lie works them in this manner. 

" I affirm both : Becaufe I have heard 

*' thefe things with my own ears, and feen 

*' them with my own eyes. I have feen very 

** many perfons changed in a moment from the 

" Spirit of fear, horror, defpair, to the Spirit of 

• 4 love, joyj and peace* — What I have to fay 

(5) Jounii from Aug. 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
f. 59. (6) Journ. ibid. p. 16. 

" touch- 

C. XII. tf th£ Hoiy Spirit. fjf 

" touching Fiftom or Dreams is this : I know 
" feveral perfons in whom this great change 
" was wrought in a dream, or during a jlrong 
*' reprefentation to the eye of the mind, of Chrift, 
" either on the Crofs or in Glory. This is the 
" fad (7)."-— Nay, he is fo convinced of \ts 
being the work of God, that the horrid hlafr 
pfomies which enfued, he afcribes to the abun- 
dance of joy, which God had given to a poor 
: mad woman of his flock. " I met with one, 
<c who having been lifted up with the abun- 
" dance of joy which God had given her, had 
*' fallen into blafphemies and vain imaginations 
" as are not common to men. In the afternoon 
-" I found another inftance, nearly, I fear, of 

" the fame kind She had her private revc* 

" laticns fo called, &c. (8)" But now, on a 
fudden, he gives us the reverfe of the Medal, 
and direclly revokes all he had advanced. — " I 
« fc told them they were not to judge of the Spirit 
" whereby any one fpoke., either by appearance 
" or by common report, or by their own Inward 
" feelings. No, nor by any Dreams, Vijlons, 
" or Revelations fuppofed to be made to their 
" foul, any more than by their tears, or any 
" involuntary effecls wrought upon their bodies. I 
" warned them, all thele were in themfelves of a 


<c might be from God, or they might not (9)." 
The Reader cannot but be much furprized to 

(-) Journ. ibid. p. 49. 

(8) Journ. from Novemb. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 
1741. p 54. 

(9) Journ. from Aug. 12, 1738, to ISov. 1, 1739. 
$> 60, 61, 

I 2 find 

t*j% On the Office and Operations B. II. 

iind fo formal a recantation of what he had 
faid (i) juft above concerning inward feelings , 
dreams^ vijions and extacies ; and of his own 
confidence in affirming thefe to be the work of 
God, from his having both heard thefe things 
ivith his oven ears y and from his having feen 
them with his own eyes ; for here he denies 
common report^ (and are not other people's ears 
and eyes as good as his ?).or appearances or, even 
feelings^ to be a fufficient ground of ailurance : 
Of this, I can give no better account, and 
perhaps the Pleader will defire no better, than 
this, that when our Apoftle thought fit thus to 
unfay, what he had fo confidently affirmed be- 
fore, it was in a defponding hour, when he was 
in much doubt whether God would not lay him afide 
and fend other Labourers into his harvejl (2). 
Under thefe fears he feemed refolved, at leaft, 
that thefe new Labourers fhould ndt reap what 
he had fown ; and therefore, at all adventures, 
thought proper to cut the ground from under 
their feet. 

At length, finding his Caufe fufficiently dis- 
graced by the unrulinefs of thefe divine Agita- 
tions ; and knowing (as we fhal! fee prefently) 
how to make a better ufe of them, he fairly 
gives them all to the Devil. " 1 enquired 
" (fays he) into the cafe of thofe who had 
" almoft every night the la ft week, cried out 
* c aloudy during the preaching. I found that 
" all of them were perfons in perfect health, 
" and had not been fubject to Fits of any kind 
" till they were thus affected : That this had 

(*) Seep. i;o. (2) Jcurn. ibid p. 60. 

* c come 

C. XII. of the Holy Spiri t. 173 

M come upon every one of them in a moment, 
44 without any previous notice, while they were 
44 either hearing the word of God, or thinking 
M on what they had heard : That in that mo- 
44 ment they dropt down, loft all their ftrength, 
44 and were feized with violent pain. This 
M they exprefTed in different manners. Some 
44 faid they felt juft as if a fword was running 
44 thro' them : others, that they thought, a great 
44 weight lay upon them, as if it would fqueefe 
44 them into the Earth. Some faid they were 
44 quite choak'd fo that they could not breathe 5 
M others, that their hearts f welled ready to burft : 
44 and others, that it was as if their Heart, as 
44 if all their Infide, as if their whole Body 
44 was tearing all to pieces. Thefe Symptoms I 
44 can no more impute to any natural cause 
44 than to the Spirit of God. I can make 
44 no doubt but it was Satan tearing them 
44 as they were coming to Chrift. And hence 
44 proceeded thofe grievous cries whereby he 
44 might defisrn both to discredit the Work 
44 of God, and to affright fearful People from 
44 hearing that Word, whereby their fouls might 
44 be faved (3)." 

Now, the Reader ought to take notice, that 
thefe were the very Symptoms which Mr. J. 
Wefley had before afcribed to the fpirit of God. 
But, by this time he was fenfible, and fo 
he confeffes, in this very place, that they had 
discredited the Work. They were therefore 
to be fent to the Devil, from whence they 

(3) Journ, from Sept. 3, 1741, to Oft. 27, 1743. 
p. 91. \ 

1 3 came ; 

174 On Me Office and Operations B. II. 

«ame ; yet ftilf upon Mr. J. Wefley's Errand. 
For there is nothing, except Nature, as we 
Sbierved above, which he can not put to fome 
good ufe or other. And this new Donation of 
the exiacies of the Saints was a noble foundation 
for what he was now projecting, the Farce of 
Diabolisms and Exorcisms. Well, there- 
fore, might he exult over this Old Mifchief- 
fnaker, as net having wit enough to difcern that 
Ae.was over- matched ; and that Mr. John Wefley 
was too- hard for him. I wonder (fays he) the 
Devil has not wifddm enough to difcern that he is 
dejhoying his own Kingdom (4). Indeed, he has 
fairly turned the tables upon Satan ; and 
ihcwn us, that he can make full as good an 
wfe of a possession! from below (5), as of aa 
Inspiration from above. 

m. The Reader remembers how con temp - 
tuoufly Mr. Wefley has fpoken of Orthodoxy, 
Gr true belief '; even to the queftioning whether 
k makes any part of Religion at all j certain is 
Be, that, at heft, it makes but a very fender part. 
'**' It is a point* fays he, we chiefly infiffc upon, 
u that Orthodoxy, or right Opinion, is at beft 
*' but a very flender part of Religion, if any 
•* £art of it at all (6)." This was done to 
take in as many as he could, from amongft 
the Sedaries ; but when he wants to take off 
as many a& he can, from amongft the Church- 
men, then Orthodoxy, Or true belief, is like 

ft) Jourrt. from Nov. 1, 1739* to Sept. 3, 1741. 
p. 56 

(5) See p 103. 

(6) Mr. Wefley's plain Account, &c. p. 4. . 


C. XII. s/'/fe Holy Spirit. 175 

Methodifm, the Unum Neceflarium : or, to 
fpeak more properly, Orthodoxy and Methodifm 
are but two words for the fame thing. u About 
" a thoufand people ftood patiently while I 
<c fimply defer ibed the plain old Religion of the 
" Church of England, which is now almoft every 
*' where fpoken againft, under the new name 
" of Methodifm (7)." 

IV. We have feen him (in the true Spirit of 
a Se&ary) inviting and even provoking Berfe- 
cution, as the only means of making the good feed 
take root : For, after having fown it in the mud 
and flime of field-preaching, he then, by a kind 
of -^Egyptian Hufbandry (8), draws together 
whole droves of obfeene Animals, who rufh fu- 
rioufiy in, and trample it about ; but this, as 
that Mother-feat of Arts may have informed 

him, only made it fpring up the better. - 

« 4 The Mob, fays he, gathered in great num- 
*< bers about my door, and quite clofed me 
*' in. / rejoiced and hleffed God, knowing this 
" was the time I had long been looking for (9)." 
But, miftake him not. A Perfecution lie certainly 
wifhed, and as diligently fought. But it was 
for his beloved Saints, who, as he fays, wanted 
it (i), who hungered after it - 3 not for himfelf, 

(7) Journ. feam Aug, 12, 173$, to Nov, ly 
1739. p. 90. 

(8) ... j. 'in fuum quifcnie rus ja&o femine, Sues 
immittit, et fatis conculcato a Suibus femine, mefiem 
dcin Je expe&at. Herod, 1. ii. e. 14. 

(.9) Journ. from Nov. i, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741; 
p. 56. 

(1) Seep. 158. 

I- 4. wh# 

176 On the Office ami Operation* B. II. 

who had no flomach to it, efpecially when it 
grew furious, as once upon a time it did. 

In his ramble to Georgia, he got acquainted 
with one Mrs. Williamfon, (fo he himfelf tells 
his ftory) to whom he refufed the Sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper. She had done fome wrongs 
it feems, to her neighbour. What it was, he 
does not tell us. The Uncle (he fays) -defired 
he would declare in the Court-houfr, why he 
expelled Mrs. Williamfon the holy Com- 
munion. But he declined it, as apprehending 
many ill confequences might arife from fo doing. 
What He would not declare, the Uncle did ; 
and faid, that it was in revenge for rejecting his., 
Mr. Wefley's, propofals of marriage, and marry- 
ing Mr. Williamfon, The Hufband proiecuted 
Kim* for defamation : And the Wife, fays Mr. 
Wefley, " fwore and figned an affidavit, itt/t+ 
*' nuating much more than it ajjerted, but afTerting, 
44 that he, Mr. Wefley, had many times pro- 
44 pofed marriage to her, all which propofals fhe 
44 had rejeaed." 


In confequence of this, " He is prefentcd 
by the Grand fury, upon oath, as having 
44 broken the Laws of the Realm by fpeaking , 
44 and writing to Mrs. Williamfon againft her 
44 hufband's confent ; by repelling her from 
44 the holy Communion, Sic." The matter 
was now growing ferious ; the Georgians, he 
found, did norunderftand /aillery, in the affair 
of fpiritual Gallantry. It was time for him 
to look about him. In this diftrefs, he began 
to have recourse, as ufual, to his revelations— ~ 
46 I confulted my friends, whether God did not 

44 call 

C. XII. c/^Holy Spirit. 177 

" call me to return to England. The reafon 
" for which I left it had now no force, there 
" being no poflibility, as yet, of inftructing 
" the Indians : Neither had I, as yet, found 
fc or heard of any Indians on the continent of 
" America, who had the leaft defire of being 

" inftru&ed. After deeply confidering thefe 

<c things; they were unanimous that I ought to 
« go ; but not yet." However, the Magiftrate 
quickened his pace. He was declared an Enemy 
to, and Hinderer of, the public peace. — " I again 
" (fays he) confulted my friends, who agreed 
M with me, that the time we looked for was now 
" come." The Reader, who has feen him fo long 
Tanguijh for perfection, will conclude, he was 
now preparing ,to meet it with the conftancy of 
a Martyr. T^o fuch matter. He was prepar- 
ing for his flight. But to hide his poltronery 
in a bravado, he gave public notice of his Apo-., 
ftolical intention. On which the Magiftrates 
ordered that he (houid firft find fecurity to ap- 
pear, when fummoned, to anfwer the Charge 
brought againft him. But he refufmg, they 
publifhed a Placart, " requiring all the Officers 
« and Centinels to prevent his going out of 
" the Province ; and forbidding any perfons to 
M affift him in fo doing." Things were now- 
come to a Crifis : and Mr. J. Wefiey, on the 
whole, thought it beft to retreat without beat 
of drum ; and to fteal a march upon the Enemy- 

« I faw clearly (fays he) the hour was 

« come for leaving this place. And as foon as 
" Evening Prayer was over, [for Prayer munr 
" always make a part in his Stratagems J about 
" eight o'clock* the tide then feiving, / Jbock off 

1 1 t' ib * 

i^S On the Cffve and Operations B. II. 

4i the dujl -of my feet (2)*" A very pleafant way, 
truly, of adting the Apojlle. But if he made the 
path eafy for himfelf, he took care to render it 
doubly perplexed for his Followers. He left, 
we fee, his little Flock in the lurch, to anfwer, 
as they could, for the crimes objected to their 
runaway Paftor. 

But had his longings for perfecution been with" 
out Hypocrify, he had here the faireft occafion of 
honeftly indulging himfelf to the full. He had 
gone as far as Georgia for it. The truth of his 
Miflion was brought in aueftion by the Magi- 
ftrate, and decried by the People ; not fo much 
for his falfe doclrines, as his falfe morals. The 
honour of the Gofpel was wounded through the 
Sides of its pretended MuTionary. There was 
but one way to fupport its credit, the way the 
firft Chriftian Preachers always took, the offer- 
ing up themfelves for the Truth they preached, 
and for the Integrity they profeffed. Inftead of 
this, our paltry Mimic thinks he had discharged 
an Apoftolic office, when he applied to himfelf 
an Apoftolic phrafe, — I Jhook off the dujl of my 
fttt, fays he ; much eafier done than making off 
his infamy. Jefus, indeed, orders his Followers 
to fimke off the dujl of their feet, where the inha- 
bitants would not receive their Dodtrine, that 
they might not throw away their time in vain : 
But he never directed it as a Trial-ordeal of 
innocence when they were accufed of immora- 
lities, and the honour of the Miffion concerned. 
When Paul and Silas had been imprifoned, 

(2) Journ. from his embarking for Georgia, to his 
return to London, p. 46 to 56. 

3 and 

C. XII. of the Holy Spirit* 179 

^nd otherwife evil intreated at Philippi, neither 
the Miracle nor the Magiftrate, (when each, in 
tneir turn, had fet open the Prifon doors) could 
perfuade them to ftir a ftep till they had pro- 
cured all honourable fatisfa&ion to their Hyured 
Characters (3). But what do I fpeak of the 
cafes, in which the prudence, recommended by 
our great Mafter, directs his Difciples to avoid y 
or the courage, with which he infpires and en- 
ables them to dare, the rage of Persecution. 
We are now on the detection of a Hypo- 
crite, who exprefled his longings for perfec- 
tion ', who invited it, who provoked it, in a 
Country where the Magiftrate retrained and 
forbad it ; and yet ran away from it when his 
own honour, as well as that of his little fock y 
{hould have induced him to oppofe himfelf to it; 
and where the Magiftrate, by his own account, 
was forward enough and ready to oblige h^m. 
But he ran away, like a Coward, on the wings 
of Prayer and the Tide : Henceforth, the hatred 
of this unhofpitable Shore, and the horrour of 
the entertainment there prepared for him, made- 
fuch an impreflion on his temper and his fdiicy, 
that he lets flip no occafion of revenge. For 
when the good man was got back to Europe, 
and even forced to beat it on the hoof as far as 
Hernhuth, in Germany, before he could get 
into a Land of Chrijlians (4), he overtook, as 


(3) A&s xvi. 

(4) " At Weyraar, we came before, I know not. 
" what great man (I believe the Duke) who, after . 
■' m:iny quefiions, afked, what we were going Co tar 
V as nttnkuth for ? I anfwered, To see the place 


I 6 »« hud, 

j8o On the Office and Operations B. II. 

he tells us, in a little village on the road, " A 

" large number of Switzers, Men, Women, 

** and Children, finging, dancing, and mak- 

" ing merry, being all going to make their 

w fortunes in Georgia. Looking upon them 

" (fays he) as being delivered into my 

" hands by God, I plainly told them, what 

" manner of place it was. If they now leap 

tc into the Fire with open eyes, their blood is on 

* c their own head (5)." It would be hard to 

guefs how he came to look upon thefe Switzers as 

delivered into his hands by God, unlefs he believed, 

God was bound to revenge all his fquabbles 

with the young Wenches of his Bands, (which, 

by his Journals, we find were not a few) and 

that therefore God prepared thefe Switzers for 

the Inftruments of his Vengeance. He made a 

proper ufe of them ; he opened their eyes ; and 

ib v in all likelihood, deprived a Britifh Colony 

of many ufeful hands. 

V. We have feen above, how he (et worldly 
Prudence •, Chriflian prudence, and, in a word, every- 
thing which bears the name of Prudence, at 
defiance ; denouncing it to be the Bane of 
Religion, and the Jnftrument of the Devil. This 
v/as but neceffary to inflame the madnefs of 
his Followers. But a very different language 
is required when the ambition of his Rivals- 
h to be reftrained. Then Prudence is the . 
y^ry balm of Gilead, the afluager of hurt 

•' hard, and let us go. " Journ. from Feb. r, 1737-8, 
to' his return from Germany, p. 45. 

(5) Journ. froid Auguft >2, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739* 
$>. 6. 

Minds 3 

C. XII. of the Holy Spirit. r8i 

Minds, and the great reftorative of ilckening 

But we fhould take the affair from its begin- 
ning. So early as in the year thirty-nine, he 
began to mfpecl, that he fhould have rivals 
in his Apoitolic office. — — cc I came into my 
" old Room at Oxford, from which I went 
" to Georgia. Here, mufing on the things 
**. that were paft, and remembering how many that 
<c came after me were preferred before me, I open- 
<f ed my Teftament, &c. (6)" For you muft 
know, Reader, that, of all the Superjlitions 
(and they were not a few) which ftruggled for 
Dominion with fanaticifm in the Microcofm of 
this holy Man, the Sortes Sanctorum were 
the Chief. A fpecies of Divination to which, 
St. Auftin tells us, the good Chriftians of his 
time had recourfe, rather than confult the 
Devil, like their pagan Neighbours. To this 
favorite folly, our Miflionary refers all his 
doubts. It is his Urim and Thummir^ ; and 
he applies it as freely and irreverently to his 
occafions, as a Village Conjurer does his Sieve 
and Sheers. At this time, indeed, it afforded 
him but fmall relief. He funk fo far in his 
defpondency, as to doubt whether God would not 
lay^ him afide, and fend other labourers into his 
harvefl (7). We foon fee what it was that 
gave him thefe cruel twitches : A Rival, and 
he no fmali One, tne famed Mr. White- 
field; who now began to fet up for himfelf ; 

(6) Journ. from Nov. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741. 
p. 14, 15. 
' (-) Journ. from Aug, 12, 1738, to Nov. 1, 1739. 
p. 60. 


i82 On tht Office and Operations B. II. 

and, indeed, as much the madder of the two, 
to ingrofs the favour of the Rabble. While 
the Rivalftiip continued on a tolerable footing, 
Mr. J. Wefley contented himfelf with, now 
and then, giving his beloved in Chrijl a fly wipe 
of contempt, as occafion prefented ; and under 
the faintly fymbol of praijing God for him, 
*< I read prayers, and Mr. Whitefield preached. 
*< How wife is God in giving different talents to 
«* different Preachers ! even the little imfro- 
" prieties both of bis language and manner, were 
«* a means of profiting many who would not 
** .have been touched by a more correal difcourfe, 
* c or a more calm and regular manner of fpeak- 
" ing (8)." This, we fee, was full in his 
teeth ; and by a fide wind came up to that 
Mafter-Preacher, who is infinuated to be more 
correct, and calm, and graceful, in his Pulpit- 
Manners. Notwithstanding this, Mr. White- 
field went on triumphantly ; and being ambi- 
tious to advance himfelf on the necks of his 
fellows, taught Faith alone ; and offered 
free Grace to a People little difpofed to 
purchafe it. Mr. J. Wefley was an Advocate 
for works : but he muft do them himfelf, if 
he expected any good from them, in this Con- 
tention. For an equivalent, therefore, to Mr. 
Whitefield's fpiritual Graces, He, like another 
Mofes, difpenfed his temporal Bleffings. Par- 
ticularly, in the art of Healing ; for he would 
truft no longer to the gift, full as his Jour- 
nals are of his miraculous Cures* It was now, 
he found, high time to fet up a regular Pratfke. 

(8) Journ. from July 20, 1749, to 0#. 30, 1751. 
p. 24. 


C. XII. of the Holy Spirit. 183 

Accordingly, he told his People how deeply read 
he was in Medicine, which he had ftudied at 
Oxford. And to prove himfelf no Quack, he 
publiftied a whole book of Receipts or Remedies 
for all the common Diftempers of life. At the 
fame time, he let the better Sort underftand, 
he was well (killed in the medicina Mentis, He 
had given innumerable flirts of contempt, in his 
Journals, againft human learning : and, 
indeed, of what ufe could Learning be in a 
Religion like that which he propagated ? In 
which, as he aflures us, Orthodoxy or right 
belief made a very fender part , if any part at all. 
Yet when now he had to ftuggle with a Rival/*™ 
arts & foc'iS) no means were to be left untried to 
fecure his Dominion. He therefore plainly 
enough informs them, that he was ready to 
teach, in a better and more expeditious way 
than was hitherto known, even to the Uni- 
versities, two eminent parts of this decried 
Learning, namely, Rhetoric and Ethics, u This 
" week (fays he) I read over with fome young 
" men a Compendium of Rhetoric^ and a Syf- 
" tern of Ethics, I fee not why a man of 
" tolerable underftanding may not learn, in fix 
<c months time, more of folid Philofophy than is 
" learned at Oxford in four (perhaps feven) 
" years (9)." Did ever Jesuit play his part 
better? Yet even this would not do. Free 
Grace bore down all before it ; and Mr. 
Wefley was at laft forced, as in a defperate 
cafe, to have recourfe to that paltry quack 
temedy, which he had fo much fcorned and 

(9) Journ from Nov. 25, 1746, to July 20, 1750. 
p. 14. 


1$?4 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

execrated, I mean prudence. — « I believed 
iC (fays he) both love and juftice required that 
cc I fhould fpeak my fenti merits freely to Mr. 

<c Wh concerning the Letter he had pub- 

" limed, faid to be In anfwer to my fermon on 
" free Grace. The fum of what I obferved 
<c to him was. this : I. That it was quite im- 
<c prudent to puhlifh it at all, as being only 
** the putting of weapons into their hands , who 
a loved neither the one nor the other. 2. That 
" if he was conftrained to hear his tejlimony^ 
<c as he termed it, againft the error I was 
" in, he might have done it by publifhing a 
c< treatife on this head without ever calling 
*' my name in queftion." — Here our Journal ift 
can treat with fcorn that very cant in which 
himfeif fo much abounds, the applying Scrip- 
ture phrafes to the impertinence of modern 
occurences. — " However (adds Mr. Wefley) 
" he had faid enough — to make an open (and 
<c probably irreparable) breach between him 
* c and me : feeing, for a treacherous lVcund y 
" and for the bewraying OF secrets every 
* i friend will depart (1)." 

Without doubt, the Reader will be curious 
to know what thefe Secrets were, which had. 
been fo ill kept between thefe two Free Maj on r. 
But the purpofe of this Difcourfe is not to 
prejudice the Readers againft this extraordinary 
Man, from anecdotes on tradition, or from, 
fecrets bewrayed ; but to enable them to form 
a judgment of his pretences, from what he 

(1) Journ, from Nov. 1, 1739, to Sept. 3, 1741. 

C. XII. c///^ Holy Spirit, 185 

himfelf has openly recorded of himfelf, and 
frequently repeated, to the World. , What I 
would have them obferve on the lafr quoted 
paflage, is only this, That Mr. J. Weiley, 
after fo total an eftrangement from Worldly 
Prudence, has, at length, in his diftrefles, 
been forced to take fhelter with her. And 
for his firft vifit, it mutt be owned, he acquits 
himfelf very well after fo long an abfence, — 
The Letter Mr. Whitefield had written fhould 
not have been publimed, as " it ivas putting 
" Weapons into the hands of the common Enemy " 
— It fhould not have been publifh?d, as it tended 
to a Schifm in the Society. — If he mull: needs 
publifh it* " hejhouldmt have called Mr. Wefleys 
" name in que/Hon" as this tended to a breach 
between thefe two faft friends.— And if he 
(Mr. Wefley) mould never confent to, have this 
breach clofed, he was juftified in prudence, 
fince the Wife man fays, from a treacherous 
wound and bewraying fecrets every friend will 
depart ; which he under ftands to fia;nify, every 
friend ought to depart. Indeed, the Reader may 
object, that there was one expedient of pru- 
dence left untried, which was, the meeting his 
quondam friend half way. Mr. Weiley was no 
enemy to this ufe of prudence, as we mall 
fee prefently. But Mr. Whitefield was too 
formidable a Rival with whom to compromife, 
or even to yield an inch. A lefs confiderable 
Oppofer might be managed this way, without 
danger; and then his prudence directs him 
to purfue it.—' 4 I laboured (fays he) to convince 

Mr. G that he had not done well in con- 

« fitting (as he termed it) the Sermon I had 
« preached the Sunday before. But he was 

" abfo- 

1 86 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

" abfolutely above conviction (2)." — Would 
not prudence now have juftified him in leaving 
a man above conviclion, to the error of his own 
ways? Surely a lefs confummate prudence than 
Mr. J. Wefley's would have done fo. But he 

will not leave Mr. G fo unkindly. " I 

" then afked (fays he) Will you meet me half 
" way? I will never preach publickly againft you. 
" Will not you againft me ? But he difclaimed 
** any fuch agreement." — When prudence 
would have advifed him not to preach publickly 
againft the Body of that Clergy to which, he 
fays, he belongs, then is prudence the bang 
cfReligicv? the nvyflery of Iniquity, and the Whore 
of Babylon herfelf. But when fhe prompts 
him to tempt a Brother of the fame trade to 
meet halfway, and not to preach publickly againft 
him, then is prudence of heavenly birth, and 
fent for the afliftance of the Saints : at prefent, 
indeed, honeftly employed in the charitable 
errand of inviting Mr. G • to play the Hypo- 
crite with him : For he declares Mr. G to 

be abfolutely above conviclion 5 that is, in con- 
fcience unable to ftir a ftep ; which, too, was 
his own cafe : Yet, in the fame breath, he 
propofes to meet him halfway. But Mr. G 
approved himfelf the honefter man. From all 
this we have reafon to conclude, that Mr. J. 
Wefley, amidft his warmeft exclamations againft 
I Vor Idly prudence, againft Chriflian pru- 
dence, and againft prudence of every deno- 
mination, had it ftill in petto to employ a 
fuccedaneum, on a prefling occafion; which 

(2) Journ. from July 20, 1750, to 0£l. 28, 1754. 
p. 81. 


C. XII. of the Holy Spirit. 187 

he, indeed, calls prudence ; but which, to 
fave the credit of his confiftency, he had better 
have let go under its true name of Craft. 

Thus have I endeavoured to tear off the 
Mafk from the furious and deformed vifage pf 
Fanaticifm and Seduction. The power of Re- 
ligion hath enabled me : and the interefts of 
Religion have excited me to this attempt ; 
nothing fo much difcrediting the Dofirine of 
Grace as thefe counterfeit impreffions of the 
Spirit of God. For, fince the defcent of the 
Holy Ghoft was no longer in the rujhhig mighty 
wind) but in the ft ill fmall voice, licentious men 
have been but too apt to conclude, either that 
Grace was an imaginary Power ; or at moll, 
that it was no other than that afliftance which 
the divine attribute ofGoodnefs, as difcoverable by 
natural light, was always ready to impart to 
diftreffed and helplefs Mortals 5 juft as they 
would perfuade themfelves that Redemption 
is nothing elfe than that reftoration to God's, 
favour, which his mercy, difcoverable too by 
the fame light, prepares and lays open to re- 
pentant Sinners. 

The Reader, in conclufion, will take notice, 
that the order I have here followed, is that 
which is beft adapted to (horten the controverfy, 
and to cut off all chicane and evafion, 

I. I have fingled out the Founder and 
Leader of the Seel:, that no one may have 
pretence to fay, that what, He is here fhewn 
to teach and pra&ife, is not true and genuine 


2. I hare 

l£8 On the Office and Operations B. II. 

2. I have confined my remarks to his own 
adventures, recorded by his own pen, and 
here fairly quoted in his own words ; that no 
one may have pretence to fay, I have foolifhly 
confided in falfe or uncertain reports ; or un- 
juftly made the Seel anfwerable for the indis- 
cretions and and abfurdities of every obfeure 
Field preacher. 

3, I have taken the Methodifts at their word, 
when they call themfelves members of the 
Church of England, that I might not run 
the hazard of confounding both the Reader and 
myfelf with long and blind fcholaftic difputations 
on original Sin, irrefejlable Grace, and juflifying 
Faith ; on Regeneration, Election, Reprobation^ 
and the immerit of good IVorks, To their mode 
of teaching, and not to the things taught, I 
confine my difcourfe. Of that, every reader 
can judge; and of that, he has a fure rule to 
judge by, the marks delivered by the holy 
Apoftle St. James of the Wijdom which is from 
above: Marks, which (for weighty reafons 
already explained) refer moftly to the mode of 
teaching ; and which, if not found in this new 
mode of methodifl-teaching, are Sufficient to con- 
vict it of impofture. 


C, I, ^/^ Holy Spirit. 189 



TNow turn, for what remains of this Dif- 
courfe, to thofe fober Minifters of the Efta- 
blifhed Church, who hold themfelves bound to 
obey its Discipline as well as to profefs its 

If any good ufe can be made of what has 
been already faid, it will be chiefly promoted 
by thefe Reverend Men, who, in honour of the 
Church which they ferve, and in gratitude to 
the State by which they are protected, will 
make it their firft care to fupport that moft juft 
of all Public Law?, the Law of Tolera- 
tion : Which, how long foever obftructed in 
its paiTage to us, and how late foever arrive^ 
amongft us, is certainly of divine original. 
Nor will fuch Men ever venture to refine upon 
it (which will always be to weaken it) by idle 
diftinctions between the letter and the fpirit of 
the Law. For between thefe, in well com- 
pofed Laws, there is no difference; the letter 
being ho other than the language and expreilion 
of the fpirit. Indeed, one would wonder, 
they ihould ever have been oppofed, did we not 
know how ready Super/lit; on has always been 
to fupport the intereirs of bid Policy, in vitiat- 
ing; both the intellects and the morals of Man- 
kind. God once' gave a preparatory Religion to 

a fe- 

igo On the Office and Operations B. III. 

a fele& People, under the name of Law, by 
which the future difpenfation was half-revealed 
and half-hidden. In fuch a Law the letter and 
the/pint were neceffarily different. A diffe- 
rence, which the Minifters to whom the pro- 
pagation of this future Religion has been in- 
trufted have been much accuflomed to incul- 
cate. Hence Superftition, in this, as in many 
other cafes of the Jewifh Law ill underftood, 
very abfurdly applied that diftindtion, to Civil 
Laws and compacts; where the full meaning 
was inftant, and fhould be obvious ; and where, 
as far as there was any real difference, fo far 
were thefe Laws of defective Compofition. 

The Friend of Toleration therefore will not, 
I fay, make any diftin&ion, or contend for 
any difference, between the letter and the Jpirii 
of this Sovereign Law of Nature. This mif- 
chievous employment will be the tafk of him 
who regards it but as a temporary expedient, 
forced upon us, to prevent greater evils. And 
as, amongft the friends of Toleration , the Eng- 
tifh Clergy, feduced by a common error, were 
not amongft the fiift to give it a cordial recep- 
tion, it feems incumbent on their Succeflbrs, 
(who were however amongft the firft to detect 
that common error) to obliterate the memory of 
the old prejudices of their Order, by the warm- 
eft patronage and fupport of what their more 
reafonable principles now fo much approve. 

Their friendly attachment to this Law will 
be beft feen by their regarding it, firft, as doing 
honour, in a Jpiritual view, to a Christian 
Church j implying confidence huhe truth of its 

• con- 

C.I. • of the Hol y Spirit* 191 

confHtution, and that it will receive no detri- 
ment by a e.mparifon with any other, how 
near or clofe ioevei th^-y may be fet together. 

And fecondly, as beftowing benefit, in an ec- 
def:tijliciilviiw^ on thf national Church; it 
being a certain Maxim That an Ejfablijhed Re- 
ligion, unde. a Toleration and a Te/t, will al- 
ways go on enlarging its bounds) fince the re- 
ftraint which this latter Law rmpofes, is fo 
light, that it is confidered rather as a fmall in- 
convenience than an injury ; a burthen fo eafy 
as not to exafperate, but barely to excite in 
men a difpofition to remove it. 

In a w T ord, the Church in which religious 
liberty is cordially entertained and zeaioufly fup- 
ported, may be truly called Christian : for 
If the mark sf the beaft (3) be PERSECUTION, 
as the facred volumes decypher it 5 well may 
we put toleration as the Jeal of the living 
God (4). This then is our prefent boaft. 

True philofophy, fo lately cultivated, and 
now happily made fubfervient to the Truths of 
Religion, hath rectified many of thofe Doc- 
trines which the ftill-mifapplied aid of the falfe 
had deformed. Nor mould the Hierarchy 
(much honoured of late in the happy recovery 
of its ancient Ornaments, the Prelates of hiMi 
birth and noble lineage) be denied the praife, 
fo jultly due, for its lhare in this reform. To 
men of Family, we are taught, by experience, 
to afcribe an innate generofity of mind, which 

(3) Revel, xvi. 2. (4) Revel, vji. 2. 


202 On the Office and Operations B. IIH 

inclines them to whatever is polite and decent 
in private life ; and, in public, difpofes them to 
fupport the rights of humanity and fociety. 
They are reckoned to be the low-born and 
Cell- bred number, in whofe minds Bigotry and 
bitter Zeal are apt to get root and overfpread. 
So that the Church may promife to itfelf 
great advantages from the genial luftre which 
this fair Acceiiion to the facred College is now 
deriving to it. Decus et tutamen, is the 
motto inicribed on every Prelate's mitre ;~ mod 
certain to be read in every Prelate's breaft. The 
jirft fhines naturally out in the birth and man- 
ners of every noble Dignitary ; the latter, his 
folemn engagements will make him ftudious to 

But this great Work will not be done by Ta- 
lents at large, but by that fort of Talents only, 
which is fuited to its facred nature. Every 
Order and Station in Society hath its appro- 
priated and proper tone ; where a confent in one 
common key makes that harmony which gives 
perfection to the Whole. It mould be the 
care therefore of every Member of that Whole, 
to fit his manners and accomplifhments to the 
natural lone of the Body which he honours, 
or by which he may think himfelf honoured. 
This is fo true, that manners and accomplifti- 
mcnts, foreign to the Profeffion, nay, tho' in 
general eftimation, of a fuperior kind, yet, 
when thus pre poll etoufly introduced, defrroy 
all that concord which maintains its dignity and 

u ft- * 


C. t. r///;f Holy Spirit, 193 

On this occafion, hear an old grecian Tale. 
A mufkian at Athens became famous for a 
facred Lyre, defcending to him, thro' a long 
race of Anceftors, from the firft Heroes and 
Demy-gods of Attica. Its Tone was fo ra- 
vifhing, and the fkill of the Mafter, in calling 
it out, fo delicate and profound, that the Ar- 
tift and his Lyre were always called upon to 
bear a principal part in the high Solemnities 
of that religious City. It happened, that in 
the midft of one of thefe Celebrations, a chord 
of the Lyre broke. It was ftrung in the or- 
dinary manner with nerves, or what our mufi- 
cal neighbours call, corde de boyau. But the 
enamoured Owner, to do all honour to fo rare 
a wonder, unadvifedly fupplied the broken 
ftring, with one of Silver. The confequence 
proved fatal. The Lyre loft all its harmony 
and fweetnefs : it grew harfh and difcordant. 
The People abhorred what before they had 
dwelt upon with raptures ; and the unhappy- 
Lyre, now the public execration, was hung 
up, a neglected thing, a filent monument of 
the folly of the too-fond PofTeflbr. 

Nor fhould the great Body of the Clergy be 
forgotten on this occafion, They who have ap- 
proved themfelves no way inferior in an honeft 
zeal for the fupport of Chriftian Liberty. If 
any frale particles of the old leaven ftill remain, 
they lie perfectly inactive. A new Start-up 
Sect, indeed, will be apt to put them into a 
momentary ferment : and, on fuch an occa- 
fion, they will be eager to expofe their tvil na- 

K Th 


194 ® n the Office and Operations B. III. 

Thus, the firft appearance of Methodism 
began to heat and irritate the miftaken Zeal 
of fome ill inltru&ed men, againft a new fpecies 
of Fanaticifm, which pretended to be of the 
Church, and yet infolently affronted its Difci- 
pline ; difdaining to fhelter itfelf under the 
peaceable made of a legal Toleration : For 
thefe men, in their hearts, were enemies to 
this Law, as fanatic Seels generally are ; who 
contend for religious Liberty, not becaufe they 
would obey confcience, but becaufe they, an' 
pleafe you, are the Advocates of Truth ; Li- 
berty , as well as Dominion^ being, in their 
opinion, founded in Grace. This, indeed, 
was a trying occafion. But had thofe good 
men confidered that the Methodijis provoked the 
Public patience merely to procure to themfelves 
a mock persecution ; for to more (as they very 
well knew) it could never amount in a State 
where the honour of the national Religion was 
fecured by a Toleration, and the fafety of it, by 
a Teji ; had they confidered this, I fay, they 
would have left thefe factious men to their own 

Befides, a fairer rpportunity never offered it- 
felf, to do the Clergy credit. Had we appear- 
ed eafy only with thofe who had qualified them- 
felves to claim a legal Toleration, our acquief- 
cence might have been imputed to our impo- 
tency in contending with it. But by bearing 
patiently with Methcdifm, the Clergy might 
have fhewn the World, that the Toleration- Acl 
had their hearts, as well as their outward obe- 
dience ; for this Seel: profefTed to be of the 
Church, and yet, at the fame time, dared to 

3 in - 

C.I. fl//^ Holy Spirit. 195 

infult its Difcipline, and fet its Governors at 
defiance ; practices which no equitable indul- 
gence would fcreen from punifhment. This 
was the time for the Clergy to vindicate their 
character from the calumnies of their enemies ; 
and in general they wifely laid hold on it : So 
that now they can be no longer fufpected of 
malevolence to the Law of Toleration^ when, 
in a cafe where they were free from its influ- 
ence, they yet bore with temper, and though 
provoked by infolent defiance, connived at the 
behaviour of a Seel: of Fanatics, over whom all 
Laws, divine and human, had given them ju- 

But then, if we {hew ourfelves thus rifiktly 
difpofed in favour of this divine principle of 
Toleration, where the Law hath left offenders 
ao-ainft Church Government to the iultice of 
its Rulers, much more difpofed mall we be to 
fufTer the honeit Sectary, who hath legally o. ug- 
lified himfelf for the enjoyment of his religi- 
ous liberty, to poiTefs it without trouble or con- 

When the Law of Toleration, had once re- 
cognized this univerfal Right, it foon became 
apparent, that that other Law of prior date, 
the Test (for the. formation of civil Sy items 
does not always, like the natural^ begin at the 
right end) was now, by fecuring the Righ:s 
of the national Church, become more necelTary 
than ever for the peace of the State. For, by 
this Law, Sectaries were reftrained from the 
exercife of certain civil. Offices^ which Come men 
have been pleafed to call natural Rights: and 

K 2 vac 

1^6 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

we will not difpute with them about a word, 
for to no more does it amount, fince it is con- 
fefled that Society could never have been form- 
ed without men's giving up fome of their na- 
tural rights^ in order to fecure the peaceable en- 
joyment of the reft. , 

But it may fo happen, by the Cuftom or 
Conftitution of Corporate Bodies, that the con- 
ditional reftraint which the Teji impofeth, fhall, 
by accident, become a benefit or advantage ; 
as when a Sectarian member of a Corporation 
is appointed by his Body to difcharge a very im- 
portant though very onerous Office ; and yet 
not permitted by the State to enter on it, but 
on conditions which his religious principles will 
not naffer him to comply with. For it having 
been, a long time, the cuftom for the Mem- 
ber, when nominated to this Office, to pur- 
chafe, of the Body, an exemption, at a large 
price, called a Fine ; when this came to be de- 
manded of a diftenting Member, he naturally 
replied, that it could not equitably regard any 
but Such who willingly declined a permitted 
Office -, certainly, not Thofe whom the Law 
had forbidden, by fevere penalties, to difcharge 
it. But to this fo piaufible a plea, it was 
thoup/it a fufficient anfwer, " That the Law 
of whofe reftraint the diftenting Member would 
thus avail himfelf, was never intended for his 
advantage or emolument." 

The queftion therefore to be decided was 
this, tc Whether he who cannot ferve is equally 
M obnoxious to the Fine, with him who will 

m not?" 

C. I. f//^ Holy Spirit, 197 

" net ? n and, to this day, it remains undeter- 
mined (5). 

Now I humbly conceive, this queftion can 
never be rightly refolved, till the true nature of 
the test law be previously fettled ; and when 
that is done, it will, I fuppofe, be no longer 
difputable. « 

Were this Law enabled to draw, or to drive, 
Diflenters into the National Church, the pro- 
hibition, of ferving Civil Offices, was certainly 
intended for a punishment. If the Law 
were enacted only to keep DifTenters out of 
thofe Stations, in which, by hurting the 
Church, they would violate the peace of the 
State, it was as certainly intended for a re- 
straint, only j and becomes a punijbment but 
by accident. 

Now were it intended for a punishment, 
the Fine is mod juft and equitable: And then 
the reafoning of the Body againft the Member, 
<c That the Legislature, by this Law, never 
" intended, the DifTenter (hould receive Civil 
" benefit and advantage," will not be without 
its force: For a be?iejit defeats the end of the 

But if the Teft impofe a restraint only, 
and it become a punijbment but by accident, it 
may, without the leafr. evil influence on the 
Law, become a benefit likewife by accident. 
Nay, to hinder this fair Chance would be 

(5) In the Spring of 1762. 

K 3 highly 

198 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

highly unjuft. For if, from the inevitable con- 
dition of human things, Particulars receive 
damage by a Law which refpedts the General, and 
which never had fuch damage in its intention, 
it is but fit they fhould have the fame chance 
of a benefit, tho' equally without the intention 
fc»f the Legiflature. 

Indeed, where the unprovided for, or un- 
thought-of, Confequence tends naturally to de- 
feat the purpofe of the Law, there the Inter- 
preters of it will interpofe, and declare the 
advantage taken to be againir. the Law ; or, 
which amounts to the fame thing, to be un- 
fupported by it. But an accidental benefit, 
which arifes from the rejiraint impofed, feems 
better calculated to effect: the end of the Tejl 
-iavj, (which is to keep the enemies of the 
Church from office in the State) than a damage, 
which might tempt them to violate their con- 
feience : The benefit is, indeed, liable to abufe, 
(and what is there in civil matters which is not 
fo ?) but this abufe does not affe£r the purpofe 
of the Law, which is to keep Sectaries out of 
Office. But let me not be mifunderftood, as 
if any thing here faid, in favour of the fecla- 
rian Member, was meant to include the Occa- 
Jional Confonnifi. For if fuch a one think that 
he may, with his confeience unhurt, conform, 
for the fake of lucrative employments, he can 
never be permitted, on pretence of Confeience, 
to plead the reftrictive law, in order to evade 
thofe which are onerous. And here let me 
further obferve, that the DifTenters will not 
feem to be in the properefl circumftances to 
claim the advantage of the diftin&ion here laid 


C.I. ^//^ Holy Spirit. 199 

down in their favour, till they have a little re- 
formed their ideas of a Tejl-law. For, they 
have I think, in order to throw the greater 
odium upon it, generally reprefented the prohi- 
bition, which it impoles, as inflicted for a 
Punijhment. Now we have (hewn, that if our 
Law-givers intended a Punijhment, it defeats 
their purpofe, to connive at its becoming an 
accidental benefit. 1 only remark this for the 
fake of a general observation, That when 
Bodies of men, whether civil or eccleiiaftical, 
fuffer themfelves to be aii/led by their paflions 
and prejudices, their interefts or refer.tments, 
the errors, they fall into, will always, fecner cr 
later, turn upon themielves. 

Now it appears, both from Reafon and Fact, 
that the Test is a reftriStive, and not a penal 
Law, in the proper meaning of thefe terms. 

1. If a Law may be underftood in two 
fenfes, one of which fupports its equity, 
while the other betrays its injuflice, Reafon 
directs us to adopt the firfr. To punijh Secta- 
ries, in order to bring them over to the na- 
tional Religion, is plainly wrong : But to re- 

Jirain Sectaries from hurting the national Re- 
ligion is as plainly right. Therefore, though 
the intention of the Legiflature had in this par- 
ticular inflance been doubtful, yet a general 
Law of a free People would admit of no other 

2. But the intention of the Legiflature was 
not doubtful : and the reafon of the thing is 
fupported by fact. When this Law was made, 

K 4 the 

200 On the Office and Operations B. III". 

the national Church was deemed, in the public 
Opinion, to be in much danger both from Pro- 
tectant and Popifh Sectaries. In the early days 
of its eftabJifhment indeed, the Government 
had endeavoured to bring Both into it; and 
many penal Laws were enacted for that pur- 
pose : But, at the time the Tejt became a Law, 
that vifionary and unjufl project had been long 
dropt ; and Government was content to con- 
fine its care to the protection, rather than extern 
Jion of the national Church. Had this latter 
point been their aim, it was to be effected only 
by the vigorous execution of the old penal 
Laws then in being. The Tejl added no force 
to thofe ; but, on the contrary, greatly relaxed 
their vigour, by difpofing Government to re- 
poie their chief confidence, and feek their 
oniy remedy for diforders, in this new-made 

And now may be feen the ftrength of that 
Objection made to the Tefl y as it is legally in- 
forced to affect the interests of Proteftant Dif- 
fenters, viz. " that its original and direct in- 
tention (a fact no one will deny) was to oppofe 
to the machinations of Popery ; and that there- 
fore, thofe being included only by accident, 
may very reafonably be overlooked." But if 
the idea here given of the Teji-law be the true, 
it is apparent, that the general, tho' not im- 
mediate purpofe of the Legiflature, in this Law, 
was to provide for the fafety of the national 
Church, and that, for the fake of the State, 
from what quarter foever the danger might 
arife. At one feafon it might fpring from Po- 
pery \ at another from Puritanifm ; but the va- 


C.I. c/^ Holy Spirit, 201 

rious civil mifchiefs, confequent on religious 
quarrels, were to be repelled, as they fprung 
up, with equal vigilance and vigour. But let 
no one by this imagine, that a companion is 
here infinuated between Popery and Puritaniim. 
As Religions, they can no more be compared 
together, than a body irrecoverably corrupted, 
with one but flightly tainted. Yet, with re- 
gard to the civil mifchiefs which religious dif- 
ferences occafion, we have experienced, that 
the lighter!: matters often produce as great, as 
the mod important : And the furplice and crofs 
in baptifm have alienated fellow Citizens againft 
one another as fiercely as the tyrannic claim of 
a Supremacy, or the fuperftitious worfhip of 
dead men deified. 

However, the nature and genius of the two 
Sects is fufficiently difcriminated by tolerating 
the one, and only (under fufpended penal laws) 
conniving at the other : But Itill on the fame 
civil principles ; thefe laws not being directed 
againft the religious errors of the Church, but 
the political perverfities of the Court, of Rome ; 
which will not fuffer its Subjects to give any 
reafonable fecurity for their allegiance to the 
fupreme Magi (Irate : For with religious errors 
as fuch, the State hath nothing to do, nor any 
right to attempt to repell or fupprefs them. 
They are the civil ?nifchiefs with which civil 
Society is concerned, the mifchiefs ariilng from 
religious quarrels when the two Parties are near 
equal in Power, (as 1 fuppofe they would foon 
be-under a Toleration without a Teft-law) and 
are fet upon reprefilng one anothei s errors, 

"' 'K*5 And 

202 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

And now, fince fo much hath been urged in 
behalf of the Diffenters, their Civil and Re- 
ligious rights, they will bear to be reminded 
of one thing, in their turn ; neither to abufe 
the Toleration themfelves, nor to fcreen others 
in abufing it. And the cafe I am about to give 
of One, who, it is pretended, was thus fkreen- 
ed, will, I hope, excufe this freedom. It is 
indeed the cafe of One who, without doing 
much injury to our dilTenting Brethren, can 
never be reckoned in their number. This mi- 
ferable Buffoon, of whom I would be under- 
stood to fpeak, was fuffered for near thirty 
years together to turn all Religion and Mo- 
rality into ridicule ; once, and,forfome time, 
twice a week, in a licenfed place of Devotion 
in the Capital of the Kingdom. A matter fo 
much to the difgrace of Society, that They, 
on whom the fcandal fell, thought proper to 
give out, that a vigorous profecution of this 
Offender was ordered to be commenced ; but 
that when it was known, the DifTenters took 
the alarm, as if the Law of Toleration was in 
danger, fince this Impoftor adled under the 
common protection of a Licence from Hlcks's 

Yet, whoever hindered the profecution, could 
n^t but confefs, that this was a very vile abufe 
of a mod facred Law : They could not but 
apprehend that for an abufed Law to fcreen 
the Abufer from punifhment, was making Law 
to execute itfelf, in a very different fenfe 
from what crafty Politicians have fometimes pro- 


C. 1. c/^ Holy Spirit. 203 

But from all that has been here faid in be- 
half of the Law of Toleration, let me not be 
underftood as if I could fuppofe, or would in- 
finuate, that this Law has altered the nature 
of the crime going under the name of Schism, 
which is an unneceffary feparation from the 
national Church ; or, becaufe it hath taken all 
civil punifhment from the offender, that there- 
fore Schifm is become harmlefs, and an empty- 
name: and that, the Law in favour of Scbif- 
matics, like the Law in favour of Witches, 
had dimpated only a frightful Fantom. It is 
true, that, in both Cafes, the Legiflature act- 
ed for the fame end, the reftraint of injuftice; 
but it was on very different principles : In the 
firft cafe, they took off civil puniihment from 
a real crime, not cognizable by a human Ju- 
dicatory : and, in the latter, they removed an 
opprobrium from the Statute Book, which ex- 
preffed a fanguinary refentment againff an ima- 
ginary one, 

Schifm, or a caufelefs feparation from the na- 
tional Church, is a crime, which, on all the 
principles of Law and Reafon, delerves con- 
dign punifhment. But, of this feparation, 
whether with or without caufe, there is no 
adequate Judge, but that Power who can dif- 
tinguifh between a well and an ill informed 
Conicience. Very juftly thereforedid this Fr^e 
Government remit the queftion to a vvifer Tri- 
bunal. But in fo doing it did no: mitigate, 
but, by its indulgence, rather aggravate the 
Guilt, wherever it mall be found, hereafter, 
to exift. And how wifely fo doubtful a point 
was remitted thither, we may, in part, fee 

K 6 from 

204 On the Office and Operations B. 111. 

from the anfwer of the foreign Divines, to whofe 
judgment, at the beginning of our Reforma- 
tion, (when the quarrel between the Puritans 
and the Churchmen about Ceremonies and Dif- 
cipline ran high) both Parties agreed to fub- 
mit. Thofe prudent and honeft men, when 
thus appealed unto, gave it as their opinion, 
that •' the Puritans ought to conform, rather 
than make a fchifm ; and that the Churchmen 
ought to indulge the other's fcru pie, rather than 
hazard one." A wife decifion, and reaching 
much further, in religious matters, than to the 
fmgle cafe, to which it was applied. 

Schifm therefore is no lefs a crime now, that 
the Law configns over its punifhment to a pro- 
per Judicature, than it was when civil Autho- 
rity, blindly and ineffectually, interfered to 
vindicate the honour of Religion from this un- 
happy fcandal. 

Thus have we feen what reputation accrues 
to the Church of England, from the eftablifh- 
ment of this ineftimable Law ; and what bene- 
fits may further accrue to it by the prudent con- 
duct of our Clergy, in its fupport. 

C H A P. II. 

WHAT remains of my Subject, will be 
more particularly addreffed to the Mi- 
-aifters of Religion : who are furrounded with 
Enemies from various quarters ', and infulted 

2 both 

C. II. of the Holy Spirit. 205 

both by the attacks of infidelity and fa- 


Their defence therefore, is indeed of ne- 
ceflity to be as much diverfified ; but it fhould 
frill be under the fafe-condu&, and with the 
fimple Armour of Truth only. For it is not 
the honour of a fantaftic Seel of Philofophy 
which We are intruded to fupport ; better com- 
mitted to the care of thofe who exercife the 
talents of its old Patrons, the Sophists; nei- 
ther is it the credit of a Traditional Orthodoxy , 
which, fomeof thofe who are called Fathers 
of the Church, have, of old, defended with 
the like arts and arms: But it is the fimple 
Gospel of Jesus, equally abhorrent of re- 
finement and deceit, 

I cannot, nor indeed have I any juft reafon 
to fufpecl:, that the Englifh Clergy will difho- 
nour {o noble a Caufe by any premeditated 
fraud. Yet the moft Upright, in the heat of 
contfoverfy, (provoked, and perhaps alarmed 
at the extravagant powers which Libertines and 
Fanatics reciprocally afcribe to Reason and 
to Grace) have been but too apt to run into 
deftruclive extremes, depreciating, and even 
annihilating, fometimes the One, and fome- 
times the Other, as beft ferved the purpofe they 
were then purfuing. Of which egregious folly, 
their Adverfaries have never failed to take ad- 
vantage, by turning their own ill-fafhioned 
and worfe fabricated Arms againft them. And 
this was eafily done ; fince Revealed Religion 
derives its whole fupport from the joint ope- 
ration of thefe two Principles, Reafon and 


2o6 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

.Grace j acting on the human mind with equal 
* and unremitted vigour. 

But to underftand morefenfibly the mifchiefs 
arifing from fuch ill-judged defences of Reli- 
gion, I fhall fet before the Reader a capital 
Example of each of thefe extremes, of 
which we are now i peaking. From whence 
we may 1c; n the ufe and neceflity of keeping 
within th t e<jua .viEAN, which moft effecl:ual- 
ly ferves to detect and to expofe the errors of 
either Adyerfary. 

It hath ever been amongft the principal arts 
of Infidelity to make the moft extravagant en- 
comiums on human Reason; and, confe- 
quently, to profefs the utmoft regard and re- 
verence for, what Unbelievers are pleafed to 
call, natural religion. Under this cover, 
by the pooreft fophiftry and hypocrify imagin- 
able, they have accuftomed themfelves to un- 
dermine revelation. But now, What ex- 
pedient, think you, did fome warm defenders of 
Revelation employ to uphold its credit? You 
will naturally fay, They took care to moderate 
the extravagant reprefentations of thefe falfe 
friends of Reafon and natural Religion ; by mark- 
ing out the juft bounds of the human Facul- 
ties, and mewing, how far Reafon extends her 
jurifdiction, and in what, fhe herfelf prefcribes 
Submimon : by explaining how neceilary a 
foundation natural Religion is to the Revealed ; 
how it coincides with it, is compleated by it, 
and fo infeparably annexed to it, (as the foun- 
dation to its fuperftruc~ture) that nothing can 
h.urt the One which does not injurioufly affect 


C. II. of the Holy Spirit. 207 

the Other ; there being no obje&ion, which the 
Logic of mifapplied Reafon can bring againft 
Revealed Religion, which does not hold at leaft 
equally ftrong againft the Natural. 

This they did, you fay, becaufe This they 
ought to have done. Alas ! they took a very 
different courfe. They declaimed againft hit- 
man Reafon ; they deprened it as extravagantly 
as their Adverfaries had advanced it. — " Should 
you be fo fooliih, they told you, as to take it 
for your Guide, it would lead you to nothing 
but to fin and mifery : that the Gofpel difclaim- 
ed it, and went entirely on the furer ground of 
Faith : that its confeffed impotency in de- 
fence of truths revealed, may {hew the abfurdity 
of relying on it to difcover truths unrevealed" 
Hence, they aflured you, " that the Deifts 
boafted Syftem of natural Religion was a Chi- 
mera; and that what (under this name) they 
recommended to the adoration of their fol- 
lowers, was an Impoftor, made up of juft fo 
much of the revealed as was of ufe to them in 
combating the reft:" Finally, theyfaid, "that 
all religious knowlege of the Deity, and of 
man's relation to him, was revealed-, and had 
defcended traditionally down, (though broken 
and disjointed in fo long a paffage) from the- 
firfl Man ; who received it as he came out 
frefh from the forming hands of his Creator." 

When our Enemies had gotten thefe indif- 
creet friends of Revelation at this advantage, 
they changed the attack, (for all Arms are in- 
different to them, but in proportion to their 
prefent power of doing mifchief) and now tried, 


ao3 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

how Revelation was to be further fhaken, on 
thefe new and extravagant principles of its De- 

I. Accordingly a certain mafked Buffoon un- 
dertook to turn one part of this Paradox againft 
them, in a Difcourfe to prove that Revela- 

and tempered his irony with fo grave and fo- 
lemn a tone, that many good men miftook 
this arch-enemy of all godlinefs to be, at worft, 
but an over-warm promoter of it. He had 
two ends in this worthy attempt ; the one, to 
difcredit Religion ; the other, to excite and en- 
courage Fanatics to difcredit it ftill more. 

A fairer Writer againft Religion, becaufe a 
more open, took up the other part of the Pa- 
radox, with the fame righteous defign. And 
as the Buffoon had undertaken to (new that 
Revealed Religion was not founded in argument, 
fo the Declaimer (6) fets himfelf to prove that 
natural Religion was not founded in common Senfe : 
for, its exiftence depending on the moral attributes 
of the Deity, his jujlice and goodnefs, this 
broacher of the laft runnings of the First 
Philosophy labours to fhew that jiflice and 
goodnefs belong not to him, whofe entire effence 
confifts in the natural \ attributes of wifdom and 
power only. Hence, under the name of natu- 
ral Religion, he flurs in upon us, an irreligious 
naturalism. And now Revelation, deprived 
of its foundation, natural Religion, and of its 
beft defence and ornament, human Rccifon, lies 

(6) Lcrd Eolingbroke. 

a fcom 

C. II. c/^ Holy Spirit.' 209 

a (corn to Unbelievers, and a prey to Fanatics 
and Enthufiafts. 

But all this hath not yet taught thefe way- 
ward Divines, wifdom. We have lately feen 
them, evenat the Fountain of Science, the Uni- 
verfity, (7) attempting to fupport in good earned 

the wretched paradox which Mr. had fo 

mifchievoufly advanced in jeft. And yet one 
fhould be utterly at a lofs to guefs in what the 
wit or wifdom of it lay, whether advanced in 
earned: or in jeft. But a mifchievous Heart 
will at any time rifque the reputation of its 
head-piece to give the alarm to fober piety ; 
and a warm Head difcloies, without fear or 
wit, the rancour of its bofom, to vilify and 
befpatter fuperior Reafon. Otherwife, to afk, 
Whether Chrijlianity was founded in Reafoit or in 
Faithy would be deemed juft as wife aqueftion, 
as Whether St. Paul's Clock was founded in Me- 
chanifm or in Motion f Since, if it be found to 
have motion, we necefTarily conclude that mo- 
tion to be regulated by mechanifm: So, if the 
vital principle of Chriltianity be Faith, we ne- 
cefTarily conclude it to be fuch a Faith, as was 
formed, and may be fupported, on the rules 
and principles of human Reafon. A wild In- 
dian, perhaps, might imagine that the Clock 
was animated by a Spirit ; and an Enthufiaft, 
ftill wilder than he, may, for ought I know, 
conclude that Chrijiianity rifes only out of in- 
ternal impulfe. But furely none but a Buffoon 
or a Fanatic would, for his credit in jeft, or 
for his intereft in good earned, difcard the ufe 

(7) Oxford. 

2 10 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

of Reafon in confulting for Wis future happinefs, 
when he has already found it fo ufeful in pro- 
curing his prefent. Both the future and the 
f refent are acquired by the right adaption of 
means to ends : and this adaption, I fuppofe, 
will be conferled by all to be in the fole pro- 
vince of Reason. Nor has this heaven-ap- 
pointed Guide ever given any juft caufe of com- 
plaint or jealoufy. When men fee themfelves 
bewildered, they ought to fufpect themfelves: 
and, I believe, on enquiry, they wilt always 
find, that they had been directing Reafon when 
they iliould have been directed by her. But 
the Pafilons and Affections, which have o«ca- 
fioned her difcredit, go on, in their illufions, 
to excite our diftruft. 

II. Again, thefe indifcreet friends of Reli- 
gion, while they were thus pufhing the com- 
mon Adverfary, with thefe imaginary advan- 
tages gained by the depreffion of human reafon, 
did not advert to the mifchiefs they were letting 
in, at the oppofite quarters of Superfiition and 
Fanaticifm. Popery can only ftand and flou- 
rish on the foundation of implicit faith ; and 
the fervours of Enthusiasm foon rife into 
madnefs, when unchequed by Reafon. The 
Priest expects of you to renounce your Un- 
derftandins; before he will undertake to recon- 
cile you to the Church of Rome ; but, indeed, 
when that is over, he permits you to take up 
as much of it again, as will ferve you tojuftify 
your Apoftafy. The quarrel, which the Fa- 
natic has to it, is more ferrous. He is ever 
feeling its ifl effects; and therefore his averfion 
to it is immortal. When Ignatius L r -pla was 


C. II. of the Holy Spirit. 211 

id the Meridian of his Fervours, fome of the 
writings of Erafmus chanced to fall into his 
hands. He was at firft feduced, by the charms 
of the competition, to look into them ; but 
finding they had, before he was aware, infenfiblv 
damped the inflammation of his Zeal ; he call 
them from him with abhorrence and execration. 
The very fame difafler, Mr. J. Wefley informs 
u?, once befell himfelf, in his converfe witrr 
the fober followers of Erafmus ; infomuch that 
he was foon forced, he tells us, to avoid them, 
as the banc of all Relgion* " I avoid that 
bane of all Religion, the company of good 
fort of men, as they are called. Thefe infenfbly 
underm'ne all my reflation, and (leal away what 
little Zeal I have (8)." If this bo true, 
though they fleal but Trafj, yet they leave him 
poor indeed; as his quondam Mafter has lately 
obferved. " Your ftri&ures upon Meflieurs of 
" the Foundery, and the Tabernacle, &c. 
" (fays he to a friend) are veryjuft. Thefe 
" gentlemen feem to have no other bottom to 
" ftand upon but that of Zeal (9)." Indeed, 
againft fo dangerous an Enemy as Sober 
Sense, the Fanatic cannot be too carefully 
guarded. And therefore, he never thinks him- 
felf fecure from the mifchiefs of Reafon, till he 
has, with the fame hoarfe clamours that the 
metamorphofed Clowns in the Fable, purfued 
Latona and her godlike I flue ; driven away 
from the neighbourhood of the Saints, both 

(8) journ. from Aug. 12, 173$, to Nov. 1, 1739. 

P- 3 1 - 

(9) Mr. W. Law's Collection of Letters, &c. p. 



212 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

Reafon, and her fair and celeftial Offspring 
natural Religion and human Learn- 

Mr. J. Wesley, who is ready to exhibit to 
us every feature of Fanaticifm in its turn, has, 
I fear, been kept fo long upon the Scene, as 
to tire out his Audience ; he fhail therefore be 
only once again exhibited, to teitify, in a word 
or two, his civilities to natural Reafon and ?/<?-. 
tural Religio7i; and then difmifTed for good. 
As to the firft, he frankly tells us, The Fa- 
ther of lies was the Father of reafnings alio : 
" I obferved, (fays he) every day more and 
<c more, the advantage Satan had gained over 
us. Many were thrown into idle reafm- 
ings" — And again — " Many of our Sifters 
are fhaken. Betty and Efther H. are grie- 
<c voujly torn by reafonings ( i )." — His civilities to 
natural Religion, and to that eminent 
Writer who has fo well explained the nature of 
this firft. great gift of God to Man, follow next > 
** Meeting with a French man of New Orleans 
" (fays Mr. Wefley) he gave us a full and parti- 
" cular account of the Chicafaws : — And hence 
" we could not but remark, What is the 
* ; Religion of Nature, properly fo called^ 
<c or that Religion which flows from natural Rea- 
ic fon^ unaffifled by Revelation." He then fpeaks 
of their manners in War. — Their way of liv- 
ing in Peace follows in thefe words ; u They 
" do nothing but eat and drink and fmoak 
" from Morning till Night, and in a manner 

(0 Journ. from Nov. 1,1739, to Sept. 3, 1741. p. 8. 
and 17. 

" from 


C. II. 5///;^ Holy Spirit# 213 

*' from Night till Morning. For they rife at 
" any hour of the night when they wake, and 
" after eating and drinking as much as they 
" can, go to fleep again. See the Religion 
*' of Nature truly delineated (2)." 
What is chiefly curious in this account is, 
that Mr. Wefley profefles to fhew us what that 
Religion is which is properly called natural, or 
that which flows from natural Reason un- 
affifted by Revelation, and yet he gives us, 
in its ftead, only man's natural manners, which 
flow not from his reafon, but from his paffions 
and appetites only ; in an example, where 
Reafon may be rather faid to have a capacity 
of exigence than actually to exift, as being alike 
inert and void of power whether the Chicajaw 
be waking or afleep. 

As to Human Learning, if the zealous 
Mr. W. Law does not aflault this more rudely 
than his forward Pupil has infulted Natural 
Religion, yet he returns much oftener to the 
Charge. The lafl Legacies, which this boun- 
tiful Gentleman hath beftowed upon the Pub- 
lic, are A Collection of Letters, he. and An Ad- 
drkfs to the Clergy, kc. In thefe two Works the 
liaplefs Author of the Divine Legation, is point- 
ed at, on every occafion of abufe> and held upas 
the grand Apoftate from Grace to Human Rea- 
fon ; and this chiefly, for denying (what indeed, 
I neither deny nor aflirm, for I take it to be 
nonfenfe) That " Divine Irfpiraii.n is essen- 
■" TIAL to Mans firfl created Jlate, and vainly 

(2) journ. from his embarking for Georgia, to his 
return to London, p. 44-5. 

" think- 

2i4 ® n the Office and Operations B. III. 

" thinking to find oat a middle way, between this 
" and no infpiration at all, namely, that the 
" Spirit's ordinary influence occafionally afftfls the 
"faithful {2)" For this, and for fome few 
things befides, fuch as a charge of Spinozifm 
on his beloved Behmenifm, I have the honour 
to be plentifully, though fpiritually railed at, 
whenever he fancies he fees me in the Retinue 


He lays it down as a Poftulatum c f That 
" whatever comes not immediately from 
" God can have nothing godly in it. There- 
" fore what comes immediately from Self, 
*' fuch as natural Reason, however out- 
wardly coloured, can have no better a na- 
ture wLhin than the very Works of the 
Devil (4)." 


Now the fruit of natural reafon being human 
learninc; (indeed, according to this ac- 
count, more properly than men were aware of, 
called prophane Learning) he thus defcants up- 
on it. 

Firft of all, he allures us, it has nothing to 
do with Religion. " Where can God's King- 
** dom he come, but where every other power, 

" but hi-, is at an end, and driven out? 

" What now have Parts and Literature and the 
" natural Abilities of man to do here ? juft as 
" much as they can do at the Refurreclion of 
" the dead j for all that is to be done here is 

(3) Seep. 12 and 25 of the Addref, /* the Chrgy. 

(4) Addrefs, p. 57. 

" nothing 

C. II. ff//^HoLY Spirit. 215 

<c nothing elfe but Refurreclion and Life. 

" Yet vain man would be thought to do fome- 
<c thing in this kingdom of Grace — becaufe he has 
<c happened to be made a Scholar, has run 
46 through all the Languages and Hiftories, has 
" been long exercifed in conjectures and critl- 
" cifms, and has his head full of all notions, 
<c theological, poetical, and philofophical, as 
" a Dictionary is full of all fort of words. 
" Now let this fimple queftion decide the whole 
w matter here : Has this great Scholar any 
" more power of faying to this mountain, Be 
cc thou removed hence and cajl into the Sea, than 
" the illiterate Chriftian hath (2)." To this 
reafoning againft human Learning, in its ufe to 
Religion, little can be oppofed. For it is very 
certain human Learning can neither raife the Dead, 
nor remove Mountains. 

But it is not only ufelefs in Religion, but is of 
infinite mifchief. 

For 1. It nourifheth pride. " The pierc- 
w ing Critic may, and naturally will, grow in 
" pride, as fail as his fkill in words difcovers 
" itfelf. And every kind of know lege that {hews 
" the Orator, the Difputer, the Commentator, 
" the Hiftorian, his own powers and abilities, 
" are the fame temptation to him that Eve had 
" from the ferpent," &c. (3) 

2. It nourifheth Contention. — " Grammar, 
" Logic, and Criticifm, each knoweth nothing 
" of Scripture but its words ; bringeth forth 

(2) Addrefs, p. 96-7. (3) Letters, p. 187. 

** nothing 

2r6 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

" nothing but its own wifdom of words, and a 
** Religion of wrangle, hatred, and contention 
<c about the meaning of them (4)." 

3. It turneth Religion to a trade.- 

<c Where felf? or the natural man is become 
" great in religious Learning? there, the greater 
" the Scholar, the more firmly will he be fixed 
" in their Religion, ivhofe God is their belly (5)." 

4. It is the abomination of defolation. — " Ge- 
" nius and Learning entered into the pale of the 

*' Church Behold, if ever, the abomination 

*' of defolation (landing in the holy place. — 

*f Chrift has no where ipoken one fingle word, 
** or given the leaft power to Logic, Learning? 
*' or the natural powers cf man in his king- 
** dom (6)." By this, we find, that Christ's 
Kingdom may be ufurped as well by dafftc 
Learning as by Church Discipline. It is 
certain, our modern ideas of religious Liberty 
can confift with neither of them, for this Liberty 
claims an exemption both from Reason and 

5. It chufeth darknefs rather than light.- 

<c But now, Who can more reject this divine 
<c light" [i. e. the light of the world? reillumi- 
nated by the bleffed Jacob? as he calls him] u or 
" more plainly choofe darknefs inftead of it, 
e$ than he who feeks to have his mind enriched, 
" the faculties of his fallen foul cultivated, by 
" the literature of Poets, Orators, Philofo- 

(4) Addrefs, p. 122. (5) Ibid. p. 59. 

(6) Ibid. p. 114- 

u phers, 

C. II. c/^ Holy Spirit. 2 r 7 

" phers, Sophifts, Sceptics and Critics, born 
44 and bred up in the vvorfhip and praifes of 
" Idol-Gods and Goddefles." 

6. Finally it is a total Apoftacy from God ami 

Goodnefs. " The practice of all Churches 

44 for many ages, has had recourfe to Learning 
" Art, and Science, to qualify Minifters for the 
44 preaching of the Gofpel — To this more than 
44 to any other caufe, is the great Apoftacy of 
" all Chriftendom to be attributed. — Thedeatir 
46 of all that is good in the Soul, have now 
44 and always had their chief nourifhment and 
44 fupport from the (tn[c of the merit and i'ui- 
44 ficiency of literal accomplishments — And the 
44 very life of ^fejus in the Soul is by few people 
44 lefs eaineftiy defiied, or more hard to be 
44 praclifed than by great JVits, Clajfical '-Critics, 
44 Linguijh, Hi/forians, and Orators in holy or- 
44 ders (7)." — And again — 44 This empty letter- 
44 learned knoivlege, which the natural man can 
44 as eafily have of the Sacred Scripture aivd 
44 human matters, as of- any other books ox 
44 human affairs, this being taken for divine 
44 knowhge has fpread fuch darknefs and delu- 
44 fion all over Chriflendom, as may be rec- 
44 koned no lefs than a general Apostasy 
44 from the Gofpel -ftate of divine illumina- 
44 tion (8)." We fee by this, that the grand 
miftake of Scholars has hitherto been, in fup- 
pofing, that the true fenfe of Scripture is to be 
discovered by the application of thofe Principles 
which enable us to find out the meaning con- 
tained in other ancient Books. 

(7) Letters, p. 3 J. (8) Addrcfs, p. 04. 

L And 

2i3 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

And now the good man having worked up 
his cnthufiafin into a poetical ferment, (for, as 
it has been faid, that a Poet is an Enthufiaft in 
ieft, fo, he {hews us, that an Enthufiaft may 
be a Poet in good earned) he adorns thefe pow- 
erful reafonings with a ftring of as beauteous 
Similes, in difcredit of human Learning. 

1. It is compared to the fall of man. — " Look 
4C (fays he) at the prefent ftate of Chriftendom, 
" glorying in the light of Greek and Roman 
44 Learning, and you will fee the fall of the 
44 prefent Church from \x& firjl Gofpel-flate, to 
44 have much likenefs to the fall of the firft di~- 
44 vine man, from the glory of paradifiacal in- 
" nocence, and heavenly purity, into an earth- 
44 ly (rate and beftial life of worldly craft and 
44 ferpentine fubtilty (9)." 

2. It is diie&ly compared to the old Serpent — 
44 What a poverty of fenfe in fuch, to fetthem- 
44 felves down at the feet of a Mafter Tully, 
44 and a Mafter Aridotle ! who 01, ly differ from 
* 4 the meaneft of all other corrupt men, as the 
44 teaching Serpent differed f om his fellow-ani- 
". mals, by be in 2; more fubtle than all the beafls 
** of the field (\y 

3. It is compared to the Toiver of Babel-  

44 A Toiver of Babel may, to its builders eyes, 
44 feem to hide its head in the clouds j but as 
44 to its reaching of Heaven, it is no nearer to 
44 that than the earth on which it ftands. It 
44 is thus with all the buildings of Man's wif- 

{9) Ibid. p. 98. (1) Ibid. p. 139-4C. 

2 " dom 

C. II. of the Holy Spirit. 219 

" dom — He may take the logic 0$ Ariftotle, add 
" to that the rhetoric of Tully, and then 2fcend 
" as high as he can on the ladder of Poetic ima- 
" gination, yet no more is done to the reviving 
" the loft life of God in his Soul, than by a 
" Tower of Brick and Mortar, to reach 
" Heaven (2)." 

4. Again, it is compared to Idolatry — cs What 
" is it that moft of all hinders the death of the 
u old man ? — It is the fancied riches of Parts, 
** the glitter of genius, the flights of imagina- 
tion, the glory of Learning, and the felf- con- 
ceited ftrength of natural Reafon : Thefe are 
" the Jlrong-holds of fallen Nature, the Mafter- 
** builders of Pride 's Temple, and which, as fo 
many Priejls, keep up the daily worjhip of 
Idol self (3)." 



But, now his poetical Enthufiafm has blazed 
itfelfout; and he comes again to himfelf. — We 
know how the lucid intervals of a Fanatic are wont 
to be employed ; generally in covering the mad- 
nefs of the Hot fit with the moft deliberate and 
unblufihino; falfehoods of the Cold, 


From what hath paft, rafh Divines might be 
apt to charge this holy man, fo meek of Spirit, 
with Enthufiafm^ — with a brutal fpite to Reafon, 
— and with more than Vandalic rage againft 
human Learning. But they wrong him greatly. 
1. As to Enthufiafn, he fays, — " What an ar- 
gument would this be ; Enthufiafts have made 
a bad ufe of the doctrine of being led by tfo 

(2) Ibid. p. 104. (3) Ibid. p. no. 

L 2 " fpirit. 

220 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

" fpirit of God ; ergo, He is Enthufiajllcal who 
£< preaches up the dodtrine of being led by the 
« fpirit of God, Now abfurd as this is, was 
" any of my Accufers, as high in Genius , as 
<c bulky in Learning, as Coloffus was in Stature, 
" he would be at a lofs to bring a ftronger ar- 
*' gument than this to prove me an Enthufiafl, 
<l or an abetter of them (4)." This is plainly 
unanfwerable, unlefs you read, as his Accufer 
wrote it, for — who preaches up the doclrine — who 
abusively preaches up the doclrine. 

2. " Another Charge (fays he) upon me, 
<c equally falfe, and, I may fay, more fenfelefs, 
*' is, that I am a declared Enemy to the ufe of 
« c Reafon in Religion. And, why ? Becaufe in 
<c all my writings I teach that Reafon is to be 
« c denied. I own it, and this, becaufe Chrifr. 
** has faid, Whoever will co?ne after me, let him 
<{ deny himfelf. For how can a man deny him- 
*' fclf without denying his reafon, unlefs reafon 
M be no part of himfelf (5) ?" Now I am at a 
lofs to know, How any one can become an 
enemy to another more declared, than by deny- 
ing or renouncing that other. Were I to deny 
my Sovereign, I mould be foon taught to know, 
that he confidered me as his enemy, and would 
probably treat me accordingly. But Sovereign- 
Reafon has no Attorney-General, unlefs perhaps, 
it be that Coloffus he fpeaks of, and fo loudly 
defies. — However, if human Reafon can argue 
no better than Mr. Law, I am ready to deny 
her too. — For, a Man's felf I have been 
taught, has a two-fold acceptation ; his Reafon 

(4) Ibid. p. 51. (5) Ibid. p. 52. 


C. II. of the Holy Spirit. 221 

may be called, himfelf, and fo may his PaJJtons. 
If therefore he be commanded to dehy bimfelf, I 
(hould conclude, it was not his better felf, his 
Reajon, but the ivorfe, his PaJJtons > to which 
the divine Command refers. 

^. Then as to human Learning, the Charge, 
he tells us, is as falfe and fenfelefs as the reft. — 
tc Shew me a Scholar as full of learning as the 
" Vatican is of Books, and he will be juft as 
*' likely to give all that he hath for the Gojpel- 
" Pear/, as^he would be, if" he was as rich as 
M Crcefus. Let no one here imagine I 


" TERATURE, arts? and fciences, or that I 
lC wifh, the World to be Without them, lain 
" no more an Enemy to tlem^ than to the com- 
" mon ufeful labours of life. // is literal 
M Learning, verbal content! en, and critical Jlrife 
" about the things of God that I charge with 
" folly, and mifchief to Religion. And, in this, 
** I have all learned Chriftendorri, both Popifh 
" and Protectant, on my fide ; for they both 
u agree in charging each other, with a bad and 
" falfe Gofpel-itate, becaufe of that, which 
" their Learning, Logic, and Criticifm do for 
" them (6)." There are no fuch proficients 
in fophijlry as the declared enemies cf Reafony 
nor any fo dextrous in legerdemain as the 
meereft bunglers in Mechanics.— He is not an 
Enemy, he tells us, to human literature, but to 
literal learning only : That is, he approves of 
Learning contained in Letters, but not of Let- 
ters contained in Learning. The truth is, he 

(6) Ibid. p. 152. 

L 3 would 

2 22 On the Office and Operations B. Ill, 

would willingly in this diftrefs take melter, did 
he know how, even in the gracelefs company of 
Men of Tajie ; who, like him, to hide their 
ignorance, are always fcoffing at the Pedantry 
of literal /earning and verbal criticifm, with the 
lame good fenfe that an Artificer abufes thofe 
Tools of his trade which he knows not how to 

work with. Again, do Popifn and Pro- 

tefiani Diiputers ever fay to one another, — You 
jupperi a bad and falfe Go/pel by Learning, _ Logic, 
and Criticifm? Do not their reciprocal accufa- 
tions of one another's errors turn upon the 
WANT of Learning, Logic, and Criticifm? Or 
was Mr. Law, indeed, fo ignorant as he pre- 
tends, when he fuppofes there are now two 
Kinds of Learning, Logic, and Criticifm, a 
Pqpifh ^nd a Protectant ; inftead of one, founded 
and perfected on Principles, held by both Par- 
ties in common ? — All that they charge on one 
another is the abufe of thefe Principles. - 

But to draw towards an end with this furious 

Behmenift In all this ribaldry, the only 

chance he has of mifleading: illiterate and weak 
Mortals, is by the repeated infinuations, that 
all religious diflenfions are owing to thefe mif- 
chief-makers, Reafon and Human Learning ; 
and that, in their abfence, there is a perfect 
accord in Religion. But this is the fancy of 
nene but Bards or Enthufiafts ; who never faw, 
but in poetic, or extatic Vifions, that time when 

" Chriftians and Jews one heavy Sabbath 

" kept; 
" And all the weftern World believ'd and 

" flept. 


C. II. ^//^Holy Spirit. 223 

Before mortals either writ or read, the quarrels of 
Dunces were as fierce as thole of Wits. In 
Religion, the diffenfions amongft the irrational 
Seels have ever been as implacable as thofe 
amonoft the Rational. And if, in thofe mifera- 
ble conflicts, the wounds of the latter went 
deeper, it was becaufe their force was greater 
and their weapons better. 

To conclude, When I reflect, on the wonder- 
ful infatuation of this ingenious man, who has 
fpent a long life in hunting after, and, with 
an incredible appetite, devouring, the train 
dropt from every fpecies of Myfticifm, it puts 
me in mind of what Travellers (7) tell us of a 
horrid Fanaticifm in the Ea(t, where the De- 
votee makes a folemn vow never to tafte of 
other food than what has palled through the 
entrails of fome impure or Savage Animal. 
Hence their whole lives are palled (like Mr. 
Law's amongnV his Afcetics) in Woods and 
Forefts, far removed from the comer fe of man- 

And now, to turn back to our Free- 
thinker. As profefled an Adorer as he would 
be thought of his Sovereign Miitrefs, Reason, 
we {hail fee, that the modern Infidel, like the 
Pagans of old, when their Gods proved unkind, 
can himfelf, on occafion, treat his favourite 
Idol with the utmoft ignominy and contempt ; 
for as one of the molt ingenuous of this holy 
Brotherhood has freely confefled, When Reafon 

(7) Tavernier. 

L 4 ii 

224 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

is again/? a Man, a Alan will always be againjl 

They had (o long boafted of the Power of 
this their favorite Idol, They had fo loudly 
trumpeted the virtue of her Orient beam for 
driving away thofe Fantoms conjured up by 
Revelation, in the dark Regions of Superjlition, 
that the able and fober Divine thought it high 
time to check their impertinent triumphs ; and 
ihew the World, On which fide Reason had 
declared herfelf. In order to this, they inforced 
and illuftrated, (defecated from the drofs of the 
Schools) the invincible arguments of their 
Predeceflbrs in fupport of Revelation ; to which 
they added large and noble acceflions of their 
own. What was now to be done ? The Deift 
could not directly degrade that Reafon which he 
had already inthroned. Yet finding Her in 
this fervice, he thought he had a right to inft- 
nuate that fhe was no better than fhe fhould 
be ; and had, like oAer common Prcftitutes, 
changed her name, and a&e&ed to be called, 
Polemic Divinity. 

It mufl be confeffed, that the unguarded 
manner in carrying on Theologic controverfy 
had fubje£r.ed it to much defeived ceniurc. 
This, joined to the fort of Learning employed 
in divers of the more early defences of Religion, 
where, both the fafhion and flandard fmelt 
flrongly of the barbarous form and bafe alloy of 
the -Schools, gave them a large handle to run 
-down all the defences that followed, Some 

(8) Hobbs. 


C. II. of the Holy Spirit. 225 

parts of Polemic Divinity* appeared, on 
their Principles, to be trifling > other parts bore 
hard upon their Conclufions ; (o they took ad- 
vantage of what was faulty in itfelf, and fought 
advantage of what appeared impertinent to 
them, to ridicule the whole. Hence Polemic 
Divinity became the whetftone of their wit, and 
the conftant Butt of their malice. As the cre- 
dit of Deifm advanced, this cant grew familiar, 
and fpread itfelf into the fafhionable World. 
Nor could the divine Genius of thofe Mailers 
ofReafon, a Grotius, or an Episcopius, a 
Hooker, or a Chillingworth, when once 
nick- named Polemic Divines, hinder them from 
being enrolled amongft Scoti/h and Thani/h, 
and the verieft rabble of the Schoolmen, by 
fome of the more ignorant or indifcreet of all 
Parties. But the thing men: to be lamented is, 
to fee any well-meaning Clergyman of affected 
tafte and real ignorance, go out of his depth, 
as well as out of his Profeflion, to exert his 
fmall talents of ridicule on the fame fubje£t, 
merely for the fake of being in the fafhion ; 
and, free from all malice as well as wit, treat 
Polemical Divinity (which, for all the hard 
name, is indeed nothing but a critical exami- 
nation of the doctrines of our Faith) as cava- 
lierly as ever did Collins or Tindal, Lords 
Shaftfbury or Bolingbroke. Yet had thefe 
fmall-dealers in fecond-hand Ridicule but the 
leaft adverted on their doings, they mult have 
(een the abfurdity as well as mifchief of fo un-> 
weighed and wanton a conduct, 

Their Adversaries had fnfficient provoca- 
tion ', and were not without a plaufible pretence 

L 5 f r 

226 On the Office and Operations B. ill. 

for their quarrel with Polemic Divinity, 
whether it were employed in fupporting Reve- 
lation in general againft the common Enemy, 
or in defending the Gofpel-truths againft the 
errors of Sectaries. 

The provocation they had received was 
not fmall. The Friends of Revelation having a 
Religion to defend which was founded on the 
Authority of a Divine MeiTenger, who appealed 
to Miracles performed, and to Prophecies fulfil- 
led, They fuppofed the moft fimple and natural 
method was to prove the truth or this Religion, 
as all other human tranfactions are proved, by 
Facts. This was at length fo invincibly per- 
formed, that their Enemies were forced to have 
recourfe to their favourite Deity, Reason, to 
undo the knot, and free them from their Em- 
barras. Her power, they had long objected to 
believers, as the only barrier agamlt Superflition ; 
and now was the time to prefs it home. " You 
urge us wnhfaflS) fay- they, and the tejlimony of 
Antiquity ; Supports too {lender to bear the un- 
natural load of Revelation. A thing impoilible 
in itfelf, as it contradicts the eftablifhed order 
of Piovidence : a thing impoilible under the 
Bible-reprefentation of it, as feveral paflages in 
that Book directly oppofe our common notices 
of God's Attributes. Would you have us give 
credit to your fond notions of Revelation, let 
us fee you fupport it on our common principles 
of Philofophy, natural, dialectic, and meta- 
physeal. When you have done this, we mail 
be fatisfied, for on thefe principles only will 
"Reason allow us to fubmit." This was what 
they pretended to expect \ and Divines took 


C. II. j/^Holy Spirit. 227 

them at their word ; and immediately entered 
upon, and foon compleated a defence of Reve- 
lation, on this new prefcribed method of Proof. 
How effectually, the prevarication of their Ad- 
verfaries, of which I am going to fpeak, amply 
evinces. For no fooner was that done which 
they had fo vainly reprefented as impoflible, 
than they changed their tone, and now at- 
tempted to ridicule it as a very impertinent at- 
chievement. " It is aftonifhing (fays the Go- 
" liah of their party) how Divines could take 
" fo much filly pains to eftablifh myftery on 
" metaphyfics, revelation on philofophy, and 
" matters of fact on abftracl; Reafoning. Re- 
" ligion, fuch as the Chriflian, which appeals 
M to fac~ts, muft be proved as all other fads that 
c< pafs for authentic are proved. If they are 
" thus proved, the Religion will prevail with- 
M out the amftance of fo much profound Rea- 
" foiling (8)." This was what the learned 
Divine got for his pains ! not only to have his 
Compliance laughed at, but, what is the com- 
mon attendant on Ridicule, to have it falfified. 
Divines, we fee, are reprefented as applying their 
metaphyfics, philofophy, and profound reasoning, to 
Prophecies, and Miracles. How grofs the mif- 
reprefentation I They had more wit, they had 
more hone try, than to take that filly pains. 
They employed their Philofophy as became fuch 
Matters of Reafon, not to matters offacl, but 
of right. It was pretended that God could not 
give a Revelation ; that he could not fele£r. a 
Ghofen People ; that he could not accept a vica- 

(8) L. Bollingbroke's Letters concerning the Stw?y 
and Ufe of Hijlory. 

L 6 riou-s 

228 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

rlous Attornment : And againit thefe bold aflfer- 
tions, the Chriftian Divine directed all the force 
and evidence of true Philosophy. With 
what fuccefs, a better pofterity fhall tell with 
gratitude. This is the Jpite, I meant, which 
Unbelievers bear to that part of Polemic Divi- 
nity^ which concerns the Being and Nature of 

The plausible pretence they had to ri- 
dicule and contemn the reft, which is employed 
in fettling and adjuiting the various modes of 
Religion, comes next to be confidered. Thefe 
men holding Religion itfelf to be vifionary and 
fantaftic, laughed, and naturally enough, to fee 
fuch a hurtle made about its modes \ which, on 
their ideas, was a difpute, about a Nothing once 

But now, to fee the Friends of Revelation 
difpofed to laugh with them, and to ridicule 
either one or other of thefe parts of Polemic Di- 
vinity, is not amongft the leaft of thofe abfurd 
perverfitiCs, in which common life, at prefent, 
fo much abounds. For is that which makes 
cur Hope not afhamed^ and fupports the Faith 
which is counted for right ecufnefs^ is that, X 
fay, the natural, the reafonable object of a 
Christian mans contempt ? But as this Jatter 
part is more generally known by the name of 
Polemic Divinity, and is the more ufual topic of 
fafhiona^le ridicule, it may be proper to add a 
word or two on the extreme folly of imitating 
the airs of our Adverfaries, on this occafion. We 
have obferved that the Freethinker was not with- 
out foroe excufe in laughing at this part of reli- 

C. III. of the Holy Spirit. 220 

glous Controverfy, fince, on his ideas, it was 
difputing about the modes of a non-entity. But 
the Chriftian Divine takes his Faith for a 
Reality ; and therefore can never deem the 
modes of it to be indifferent ; but muft hold, 
that, of the various opinions arifing from 
thence, fome, with their truths, may be ufeful, 
and fome, with their errors, hurtful to Society : 
So that when, about thefe modes 9 Churches 
differ, they become as reafonably the fubjecl: of 
ferious enquiry, as any other real entities what- 
foever ; and have their importance in propor- 
tion to their good or bad influence on Truth 
and Virtue. In a word, Polemic Divinity 
is, in the fancy of a Libertine, a fquabble for 
preference between two Falfehoods ; in which, 
there is room enough for ridicule : But on the 
Principles of a Believer, it is a conteft between 
Truth and Falfehood ; in which, there is no- 
thing to be laughed at, though much to be la- 


BU T there was never yet extravagance, ei- 
ther of Unbeliever or Fanatic, which 
the over zealous Advocate of Religion and fober 
Piety hath not unhappily oppofed by a contrary, 
and frequently by as mifchievous an extreme. 

We have feen how unwarily fome of them 
have been drawn in to depreciate and to degrade. 
human Reason, when their Adverfaries had 


2>30 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

too extravagantly advanced it. They have, at 
other times, advanced it as extravagantly, when 
their Adverfaries were in an humour to vilify 
and difgrace it. 

To underfland what I mean, we muft go a 
little back in the Hiftory of Fanaticifm : And 
They, whom this matter moft concerns, will 
need no other proof of the folly of fuch a con- 
duct than what arifes from the hiftorical detec- 
tion of it. 

The Redemption of Mankind by the 
death of Chrift, and the Sacrifice of himfelf 
upon the Crofs, together with its confequent 
Doclrineof Justification ky Faith alone, 
were the great Gofpel-principles on which Pro- 
testantism was founded, on the firft general 
Separation from the Church of Rome : by fome, 
perhaps, carried too far, in their zeal for fet- 
ting it at a mortal diftance from the Popifh 
DocTrine of Merits-, the Puritanic fchifm 
amongft us being made on a pretence that the 
Church of England had not receded far enough 
from Ro?ne. However, being Gofpel- Princi- 
ples, they were held to be the badge of true 
Proteftantifm by all : When the Puritans (firft 
driven by Perfecution from religious into civil 
Faction, and by thefe Factions heated, on both 
fides, into Enthufufm) carried the doctrine of 
Jujlification by Faith alone into a dangerous and 
impure Antinomianifm : For it is of the very na- 
ture of Fnthufiafm to run all its notions to ex- 
tremes. The fpeculation was foon after re- 
duced to practice, by means of that knavery 
which always mixes itfelf with Enthufiafm, 


C. III. of the Holy Spirit. 211 

when once the Fanatic becomes engaged in Po- 
litics. The confufions which enfued are well 
known : And no fmall mare of them has been 
afcribed to this impious abufe of the doctrine of 
Jujlification by Faith alone ; firft, by depreciating 
Morality, and then by difpenfmg with it. 

When the Constitution wasreftored, and 
had brought into credit thofe few learned Di- 
vines whom the madnefs of the preceding times 
had driven into obfcurity, the Church of Eng- 
land, flill fmarting with the wounds it had re- 
ceived from the abufe of the great Gofpel-prin- 
ciple of Faith, very wifely laboured to reftore 
Morality, the other enential part of the 
Chriftian Syftein, to its Rights, in the joint 
direction of the Faithful. Hence, the encou- 
ragement the Church gave to thofe noble Dif- 
courfcs, v/hich did fuch credit to Religion, in 
the licentious times of Charles the Second, 
compofed by thefe learned and pious men, whom 
Zealots abufed by the nick-name of Latitu- 
dinarian Divines. But the reputation they 
acquired by fo effectually fuppreffing thefe rank 
Seeds of Fanaticifm, made their Succeffors am- 
bitious of fharing with them in the fame ho- 
nours : a laudable ambition ! but men have ever 
a vain paffion for improving upon thofe who 
went before. The Church was now trium- 
phant; the Sectaries were humbled; fome- 
times opprefTed ; always regarded with an eye 
of jealoufy and averfion ; till at length this Gof- 
pel-principle of Faith came to beefteemed by 
many, as Fanatical: And they, who underflood 
its true Original, found fo much difficulty in 
adjufling the diftinct Rights of Grace and 


232 On the Office and Operations B. IH. 

Morality, that, by the time this Century- 
commenced, things were come to fuch a pafs, 
(Morality was advanced fohigh, and Faith 
fo frittered into nonfenfe) that a new definition 
of our Religion, in oppofttion to its Founder's, 
and unknown to its early Followers, was grown 
to be the fafhionable tenet of the times : and 
Chriflianity> which till now had been under- 
ftood as but coeval with Redemption, was 
henceforth to be efteemed as old as the Crea- 
tion : an eminent Divine having, in a public 
Difcourfe, afferted, without circumftance or re- 
ftridlion, that Chrijlianity was a republication of 
the Religion of Nature. Thus, between the two 
oppofite Parties of Divines, we were, at the 
fame time, left without either natural or re- 
vealed Religion. The one, we fee, denied the 
very being of the natural ; and the other aflured 
us that the revealed was nothing elfe than that 
exploded non-entity. 

This Republication had, in effect, been 
talked of before, by many others of equal repu- 
tation : but being now explained, and ready to 
be received as the eftablifned Syftem, our Ad- 
verfaries began to think it time to check fo ridi- 
culous a triumph ; and to difcredit Religion 
(which they have always done with much fuc- 
cefs) on the Principles of its Defenders. For, 
with the wanton Libertine, 

-" It is the fport, to fee 

«* The Engineer hoifl with his own Petar." 

And one of the Party, an Enemy, equally de- 
termined, to Grace and Morality-, compofed that 


C.III. of the Holy Spirit. 233 

famous Book, intituled, Chriftianity as Old as the 
Creation^ to decry all Revelation whatfoever, on 
this very principle of a Republication ; fo 
unhappily conceived by modern Orthodoxy, as 
the fureft way of evincing the reafonablenefs of 
the Gospel. 

The like Advantage (to put things of a fort 
together, for the better illuftration of the Sub- 
ject) had, about the fame time, been taken of 
our indifcretions by another of thefe men ; and 
as the reafoning of Tyndal was directed to 
depreciate the Work of Redemption, fo the 
argument of Collins was inforcel to infult 
the Character of the Redeemer. The gene- 
ral body of the Prophecies which relate to 
Jefus, were, for certain great ends of Provi- 
dence, fo contrived as to have a />r/V>>v7ryaccorn- 
p'ifhment in the events of the Mofaic D\ penta- 
gon, arid a fecondary and final completion in the 
birth and fniniftry and fufferings of Jefus the 
MeJJiab. But the admirable contrivance of di- 
vine Wifdom, in giving to thofe Predictions a 
primary and a fecondary accomplishment, being 
either foon forgotten, or generally over-looked, 
it produced large fv/arms of fanciful and fanatic 
Allegorifts, who filled the Church with extra- 
vagant whimfies equally dishonourable to Reafon 
and Religion. Amidft fo thick a cloud of non- 
fenfe, the logical propriety as well as moral fit nefs 
of a fecondary fcnfe in the Prophecies relating to 
Jefus, being (wallowed up and loft, fome bold 
and hafty men, everleaft qualified to diftinguifh 
between the ufe and the abufe of a pofitive in- 
ftitution, ventured to condemn all fecondary 
fenfes, as irrational and fanatical 3 and finding 


234- On tJ 3 * Office an ^ Operations B. Ill, 

but few Prophecies which relate to the Mes- 
siah, in the primary, ihey were forced upon 
the defperate expedient of holding, that the 
Jews, -or other Enemies of Chriftianity, had 
adulterated and corrupted the whole body of 
thefe Prophecies, as they ftand at prefent in 
our Bibles. But no fooner had Mr. Collins 
got thefe ram Men at this advantage, than 
he intuited them with his Difcourfe on the 
Grounds and Reafons of the Chriftlan Religion : 
In which, he attempts to overthrow the Gof- 
pel on thefe two principles. ifr. That (by 
the oonfeilion of his Adverfaries) zfecondary fenle 
of Prophecies is irrational and fanatical. And 
2dly. That (by the confeffion of all fober men) 
the Jews had not corrupted or adulterated their 
Bible. His conclufion is, that Chrijiian Reli- 
gion {lands on no folid grounds or reafons ; 
Jefus not having, as he pretended, been fore- 
told under the Character of the Messiah of 
the Jews.— And here, let it be obferved, that 
thefe works of Tyndal and Collins, both rifing 
on the advantage taken of our follies, are the 
two molt, artful and defperate attacks on Reve- 
lation, that were ever made fince the times of 
Celfus and Porphyry. 

I have attempted to give a good Account of 
Mr. Collins's Grounds and Reafons of the Chrijiian 
Religion elfewhere (i), by confuting his firfl 
Proportion, on which the whole attack rifes, and 
(hewing the logical propriety and moral fine fs of 
Secondary fenfes of Prophecy. I (hall here- 
after have occafion to do equal juflice to Mr. 

(i) Div. Legat. B. vi. § 5, 6. 


C. III. of the Holy Spirit. 23^ 

Tyndal's Cbrifiianity as Old as the Creation. For 
the only effectual way of anfwering thefe, as La- 
deed all others of the like kind, is to renounce 
all fanciful Syftems, and to preferve inviolate 
the great Principles of the Mofak Law and the 
Go/pel off ejus ; Principles which difcover them- 
felves, and indeed obtrude themfelves upon us, 
on a careful ftudy of thofe two connected Dif- 
penfations. When thefe Principles are once 
forfaken, there is no hurtful indifcretion to 
which the ableft Divines are not fubjecl: ; and 
of which Unbelievers have not taken 'advantage. 
I mall, from amongft many, felect an inftance 
or two, leaft likely to give offence. The Ad- 
vocates of the Church ot Rome,- to evade the 
charge of Idolatry, with which they are urged 
by the Reformed, pretend that this crime confiits, 
in giving the worfhip due to the fupreme 
God, to inferior Beings. The excellent Bifhop 
Stillingfleet, in oppofmg this fubterfuge, at- 
tempted to prove, that the mod civilized Pagans, 
who are confeffed to be Idolaters, did not^give 
the honours due to the firjl Caufe to their in- 
ferior Gods ; the firji Caufe, as he pretends, 
being worfniped by them, as fuch : An affer- 
rion, which, if true, would confute all that the 
Prophets and Apoflles fay concerning the ftate 
and condition of the Pagan World. Again, 
The very learned Dr. Prideaux, to do honour 
to his exiled Jews, adopts, from Hyde and a 
rabble of lying Oriental iits, the idle fable of 
a Philofophic Zoroafter, the fubverter of Ido- 
latry in Perfia : Little attentive the while, to 
the more plaufible conclufion of Unbelievers, 
from the fame fact: ; who pretend, that thefe 
Jews, (0 prone to Idolatry before their Captivity, 


236 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

were inftru£ed during its continuance, by this 
Zoroafter, in a better Theology, which gave 
them jufter notions of the Divine Nature, and 
confequently, of a Crime that, ever afterwards, 
they held in abhorrence. A conclufion puftied 
with great advantage by Collins and Morgan, on 
the ground thus prepared by Hyde, and further 
fmoothed for them by Dr. Prideaux. 

But to go on with our fubjecl, Tyndal's 
Chriflianity as old as the Creation. 

This terrible advantage taken of a Principle 
become fafnionably orthodox, greatly alarmed 
all ferious men ; and the feeble Anfwers given 
to ir, on that Principle, were fo little fatisfae- 
toiy, that a commendable effort was made, by 
Come whofe Stations fupported them in the 
atrempt, to bring back the flighted Doctrine of 
Redemption, and to reinftate it in its ancient 
Credit. And a worthy Bifhop of London was 
amongft the firft to repair the mifchief, which 
the miftaken labours of his no lefs worthy 
Succeffor, had unwittingly occafioned. So that, 
jn a little time, we had regained much of the 
ground that had been loft, and were ready to 
replace the national Faith once again on its old 
Gofpel-foundation ; in fpite of the filly pains 
of a very equivocal Divine, who publifhed a 
Book, in oppofition to the returning Current, 
intituled, The Scripture doSlrine of Redemption, 
which was to prove that in reality there was no 
fu'-h thing : When the old puritan Fanati- 
cifm revived, under the new name of Metho- 
dic ; and, as it fpuead, carried once more 
(as far as the difference of times would allow) 


C.III. of the Holy Spirit. 237 

thofe Gofpel -principles to their old abufive 

This foon put a flop to the recovery of that 
middle way, in which Grace and Morality are 
preferved in their refpective rights : an unhappy 
difpofition now appearing in feveral Oppofers 
of this late revived fanaticifm, to return back to 
the old latitudinarian excefTes. 

And now comes in (I hope, not improperly) 
the Caution, for the fake of which I have given 
this long detail of our former mifcarriages, to 
warn men againft. a repetition of them. 

For thefe oppofed doctrines of a Redemp- 
tion and a Republication are not matters 
of fo flight moment that either of them may be 
taken up, or laid down at pleafure, juft as we 
are prefted, on the one hand, by Infidelity, or, 
on the other, by Fanaticifm. 

The Doctrine of Redemption, is the 
primum mobile of the Gofpel- Syftem. To this 
the Church mult fteadily adhere, let the ftorm, 
againft it, beat from what quarter it may. It is 
the firft duty of the Minifters of Religion, to 
fecure this great Foundation : They may then, 
with fafety, and not with the lefs fuccefs, pufh 
the Enemies of the Church, the Enemies of 
their Order, nay, even the Enemies of their 
own peculiar opinions, with all the force they 
are able ; but ever, as we fay, in fubferviency 
to the everlasting Gospel, whofe main 

Pillar is this Doclrine of Redemption. 


238 On thf Office and Operations B. til: 

How eflential a part it is of the Gofpid-GEco- 
nomy, (interpreted by God's general Difpen- 
fation, revealed to mankind, of which the Gof- 
pel-CEconomy is the completion) and how 
agreeable it is to what the beft and mod: received 
Philofophy teacheth us, concerning the rela- 
tions between the Creature and the Creator, 
fhall be confidered at large in its proper 
place (2). 

I. What better fuits the melancholy fubject 
we are now upon, namely, the advantages given 
to the common Enemy by thofe who, to get 
rid of fome urgent difficulty, are apt to forfake 
their Foundations, will be to (hew the various 
and unthoudit of mifchiefs which arife from 
the folly of attempting to change the nature 
of the Gofpel-CEconomy from a Redemption of 
Mankind to a Repuhlication of the Religion of 
Nature, A folly, by which the great Author 
of our Salvation becomes difrionoured, and the 
Chriftian Faith expofed to the perpetual infults 
of Libertines and Unbelievers. 

1. For he who confiders Jefus only in the light 
cf a Republijher of the Law of Nature, can 
hardly entertain ahigheropinionofthe Saviour 
of the world than fome have done of 
Socrates, whom Erafmus efteemed an x>b- 
]cSt of devotion, and many a better Proteftant 
hath thought to be divinely infpired. For was 
not Socrates, by his preaching up moral virtue, 
and by his dying to bear witnefs to the unity 
of the Godhead, made, to the Grecian People, 

(2) Divine Legation, B ;>ok IX. 


C.III. 5///^ Holy Spirit. 239 

and (by means of their extended commerce of 
politenefs) to the reft of mankind, JVifdom and 
Righteoufnefs ? And what more was Jefus, tho' 
the Apoflle adds to tho^e two attributes, thefe 
two other, of Sanflification and Redemption f 
for, according to the principles of this paga- 
nized Cbriftianity, his titles of Messiah and 
Redeemer are reduced to mere figurative and 
accommodated terms. 

2. As this Theology degrades Jefus to the 
low condition of a Grecian Sophift ; fo it renders 
his Religion obnoxious to the infults of every 
daring Impoftor. 

He was fent, fay thefe new Doclors of the 
Church, to teach mankind the worfhip of the 
true God, and the practice of moral righteouf- 
nefs (3). 

" This will be readily allowed, replies an un- 
derftanJing Mahometan : And on this very 
principle, we hold, that when Jefus had done 
his office ; and mankind had again relapfed, in- 
to antichr'iji'ian Idolatry and Polytheifm, as be- 
fore into Ragan^ God fent our prophet, who 

(3) A celebrated Frenchman, who wri es en all 
fubiedb. nnd, on all, with eoual judgment and ca- 
pacity, knew better, perhaps, what he was about. t!iarr 
thefe Dhines, when he went further, and afrirmed 
That Lhriftianicy is not only no more than the Re- 
ligion of nature perfected, but that it ccu'd r.otpojfi/dy 

be any more. •• Notre Religion revek'e n'eft 

" meme, e: tie towveit etre y que cetce L')i nattirelie 
u perfe&ionnee. 1 ' D'J':ours furle c [beifme, parM. de 


240 On the Office and Operations B. III. 

worked the like fudden and fenfible reformation 
in the north-east, that your Prophet did in 


And this reply, he makes on the very princi- 
ples of his Alcoran ; which (with profeflions 
of the higheft veneration for the character of 
Jesus) denies his proper Divinity, and at the 
fame time, his death on the crofs. But why, 
it may be afked, was this averfion to the Pas- 
sion of One whom the Alcoran makes a Mor- 
tal ? For this plain reafon, Mahomet, who want- 
ed the refinement of our modern Accommodators y 
plainly faw that the doctrine of Redemption 
followed the pajjion ; compleated the Scheme of 
Revelation ; and fhut out all his bold pretence?. 

Mr. Otter, an intelligent Frenchman of the 
Academy Royal of Infcripticns, Ssfr. tells us of 
a conference he had with a learned Perfian. 
The Mufllilman faid, They reverenced all our 

facred writings except thofe of St. Paul 

quils rcfpeclent tous y excepte Saint Paul (4). Why 
this exception ? I anfwer, On the Mahometan 
Principle that Cbrijiianity is only a republication 
of the Religion of Nature : for St. Paul is full 
of the doclrine of Redemption ; explains the 
Chriftian Syftem by it, and makes the whole 
Faith depend upon it. 

What now has our rational Rcpublijher to 
oppofe to this modeft Apology for Ifmaelifm ? 

(4) Voiage en Turque et e»P«rfe, vol. i. p. 22. 


C, III. ^/^Hoiv Spirit, 241 

All he has to fay is this, " That Jefus and 
his Apoftles have every where intimated, that 
the Go/pel is the laft of God's Difpenfations ; 
on the terms of which our final doom is to be 
decided : fo that all future Pretenders to the 
like Office and Character muft needs be deemed 

But here a Deist would come in, to take 
advantage of our diftrefs ; for (as we have faid 
more than once) it may be obferved alike of 
all thefe fhifting defences, on fanciful, and 
unfcriptural Syftems, that thev only fupply new 
arms to the various Adverfaries of our Faith ; 
a Diifty I fay, would be ready to reply, w That 
it is indeed true that Jefus hath declared his' 
own Million to be the last : but that this is a 
ily contrivance, put in ufe by every pretended 
Meflenger from Heaven, in order to perpetuate 
his own Scheme, and to obviate the danger of 
an antiquated authority. The Impoftor, Ma- 
homet himfelf hath done it. He, who here 
obtrudes his armed pretentions upon us, hath 
fecured the duration of his fenfual Religion by 
the very fame expedient : A thing, in his ideas, 
fo much of courfe, that he did not even objecl: to 
Jesus's ufe of it, who employed it before Him ; 
and for no other purpofe than to cut off all 
following pretentions to the like Character. 
On the contrary, He avowed and maintained 
the general truth of the Nazarite's Commif- 
fion. Now (purfues the Deift) a method em- 
ployed by a confeffed Impoftor is taken up with 
an ill grace by the defender of true Religion. But 

M I draw 

24* On the Office and Operations B. III. 

I draw a further confequence (fays he) againft 
the Gospel, from this representation of Chrif- 
tianity. For if the preaching of moral truth 
and righteoufnefs were the whole of Jesus's 
Character and Office, then his Million did 
not anfwer its end, the lafting reformation df 
mankind, in the knowlege of God, and in the 
praclice of Virtue : fince the world foon fell back 
again into the jftate from which Jesus had de- 
livered it ; as appears from the hiftory of the 
times in which Mamomet appeared, and the 
advantages he made of that degeneracy." 

II. Thus fubjected to the infults and injuries 
of all forts of Impoftors, who fet themfelves to 
delude the credulous, either by inventing new 
Revelations or by decrying the old, do thefe 
Republijhers expofe the holy faith of Jesus : 
That Faith, which, we are told, was founded 
en a rock, impregnable to Men and Demons ; to> 
the fophifms of Infidelity, and the preftiges of 
Impofture ! And fo, indeed, it is, if we will 
take it as we find it; if we will receive it as it 
came from above ; if we will preferve it pure 
and entire as it was delivered to the Saints, un- 
der the idea of The redemption of the 


This fecures the Character of Jesus from 
the infults of falfe Pretenders ; and his GosPEL- 
from the injuries of falfe Reafoners. 

S x. For, 

C.IIL of the Holy Spirit. 243 

t. For, firft of all, if Jesus did, indeed, 
redeem Mankind, and reftore them to their lofl 
Inheritance ; the fcheme and progrefs of Reve- 
lation is compleated : which beginning at the 
lapse,^ naturally and necefTarily ends in the 
reftoration and recovery of life and immor- 
tality by the death and paiTion of our Lord. 
Christianity confidered in this view (and 
m this view only, does Scripture give it us 
to confider) foon detects all the artful pretences 
of" Impofture ; and fecures its own honour by 
virtue of its very EJfence : the great fceneof Pro- 
vidence being now clofed, in a full completion 
of its One 3 regular, entire, and eternal pur- 


. 2. Secondly, if Jesus did indeed redeem man- 
kind, then did he neither preach nor die in 
vain : it not being in man's power, with all his 
malice and perverfenefs, to defeat or make void 
the great purpofe of his Coming. For though 
one part of his Million (according to Paul) was 
to inilrucT: the world in Wifdom (5) and Right- 
eoufnefs, which it was in man's power to forget' 
and negled; yet, what (Paul tells us) is 
chiefly efTential in his Character, and peculiar 
to his Office, the Sanftlficctticn and Redemption of 
the World, Man could not fruftrate nor render 
ineffectual : For it is not in man's power to 
make that to be undone which is once done and 

(5) 1 Cor. i. 30. 

M 2 

244 ® n ^ e Qffi ce an ^ Qp erat i<> ni B. TIL 

The faftidious Caviller (6) therefore hath 
employed his pains to little purpofe in attempt- 
ing to difcredit Revelation from this topic, The 
moral Ji at e of the world, before and fine e the coining 
ofChrift. For, befides what one might ven- 
ture to affirm, that, when the comparifon is 
fully and impartially fcrutinized, the advantage 
will be found to lie on the fide of our Religion ; 
yet, fuppofmg the Truths preached by Jesus, 
and the Affiftance given by the Holy Spirit, 
have not much improved the general morals of 
mankind ; How does this tend to the difcredit 
of the Gofpel ? unkfs it can be {hewn that the 
Gofpel hath no natural tendency to make men 
better. But this is fo defperate an undertaking, 
that, I believe, Infidelity will hardly be per- 
fuaded to engage in it. Indeed the contrary is 
fo true, that, (as I have {hewn elfewhere) when 
you lay together the ftate of Pagan and 
Christian Morals, one manifeft and eiTen- 
tial difference is found between them ; which 
is this, That in the Gentile world, men often 
a£ted wrong upon principle; in theChriftian, 
always against principle (7). Now, not 
to infift upon the neceiTary reftraint this muft 
needs be upon Vice ; it plainly demonftrates 
that the natural tendency of the Gofpel is 
to make men virtuous : And, to draw them by 
a flronger attraction, did not fuit the genius 
of a rational Religion, whofe objects were free 

(6) Lord Bolingbroke. 

(7) Div. Leg. Book xv. § 2. 


C.III. of the Hol y Sptrit. 245 

But the proper anfwer to this idle cavil arifes 
from the explanation given above. To Inflruct 
the world in Wifdom and Righteoufnefs was but 
the fecondary end of Chrift's Miflion> The 
first and primary, was to become its Sanc- 
tification and Redemption ; That muffc 
needs be common to every Revelation coming 
from God ; This is peculiar to the Chriflian : 
and this, as we have fhewn, cannot poflibly 
be fruftrated, or rendered ineffectual. 

To conclude from what hath been faid : As 
we fhould not affecT: to pry into the nature 
of thofe things which, God hath been pleafed 
to withold from our fearcb, and to cover with 
the facred veil of Myftery ; fo neither fhould 
we reject a Truth, exprefly delivered, becaufe 
we may not fully comprehend the whole reafon 
on which it ftands. In a word, as we fhould not 
venture to go on where the filence of Scripture 
directs us to flop ; fo neither fhould we prefume 
to ftop where, with fo loud a voice* it com- 
mandeth us to go on. 

The fum of all then is this: Reason bid- 
deth us to keep a mean : The great Philofopher 
informeth us that Nature is not able to keep 
a mean (8). What remains but that we fly 
to grace, which, the greater Apoftle afTures 
us, is able: for, the Spirit helpeth our infir- 
mities (9). Nor will there be any danger 
(when, in fuch a difpofition, we apply to this 

(8) Natura modum teiere nefcia eft, Bac. 

(9) Rom. viii. 26. 


246 On the Office and Operations, &c. B. III. 

Guide of truth) of abufing its credit by fanatical 
extremes ; for, to eftakiUJh the heart with Grace, 
the fame Apoftle informs us, is the only way 
to prevent our being carried, ahout with the divers 
andjtrange Doclrines of Deceivers (1). 

(1) Heb. xiii. 9. 

The E N D. 



ilff f, 1